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What Is Veganism?

Veganism is the practice of abstaining from the use of animal products, particularly in diet, and an associated philosophy that rejects the commodity status of animals.[c] An individual who follows the diet or philosophy is known as a vegan. Distinctions may be made between several categories of veganism. Dietary vegans (also known as "strict vegetarians") refrain from consuming meateggsdairy products, and any other animal-derived substances.[d] An ethical vegan (also known as a "moral vegetarian") is someone who not only follows a vegan diet but extends the philosophy into other areas of their lives, and opposes the use of animals for any purpose.[e] Another term is "environmental veganism", which refers to the avoidance of animal products on the premise that the industrial farming of animals is environmentally damaging and unsustainable.[21]

Well-planned vegan diets are regarded as appropriate for all stages of life, including infancy and pregnancy, by the American Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics,[f] Dietitians of Canada,[23] the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council,[24] New Zealand Ministry of Health,[25] Harvard Medical School,[26] and the British Dietetic Association.[27] The German Society for Nutrition does not recommend vegan diets for children or adolescents, or during pregnancy and breastfeeding.[g] There is inconsistent evidence for vegan diets providing a protective effect against metabolic syndrome, but some evidence suggests that a vegan diet can help with weight loss, especially in the short term.[29][30] Vegan diets tend to be higher in dietary fibermagnesiumfolic acidvitamin Cvitamin Eiron, and phytochemicals; and lower in dietary energysaturated fatcholesterollong-chain omega-3 fatty acidsvitamin Dcalciumzinc, and vitamin B12.[h] As a result of the elimination of all animal products, a vegan diet may lead to nutritional deficiencies that nullify any beneficial effects and may cause serious health issues.[31][32][33] Some of these deficiencies can only be prevented through the choice of fortified foods or the regular intake of dietary supplements.[31][34] Vitamin B12 supplementation is especially important because its deficiency causes blood disorders and potentially irreversible neurological damage.[33][35][36]

Donald Watson coined the term "vegan" in 1944 when he co-founded the Vegan Society in the UK. At first he used it to mean "non-dairy vegetarian",[37][38] and by May 1945 vegans explicitly abstained from "eggs, honey; and animals' milk, butter and cheese". From 1951, the Society defined it as "the doctrine that man should live without exploiting animals".[39] Interest in veganism increased in the 2010s,[40][41] especially in the latter half.[41] More vegan stores opened and vegan options have become increasingly available in supermarkets and restaurants worldwide.

seitan pizzaroasted Brussels sprouts and pasta
leek-and-bean cassoulet with dumplingscocoa–avocado brownies
Clockwise from top-left:
Seitan pizza; roasted sproutstofu, and pasta; cocoa–avocado brownies; and leek and bean cassoulet with dumplings.
Pronunciation [a]
Description Elimination of the use of animal products, particularly in diet
Earliest proponents

Vegetarian etymology

The term "vegetarian" has been in use since around 1839 to refer to what was previously described as a vegetable regimen or diet.[42] Its origin is an irregular compound of vegetable[43] and the suffix -arian (in the sense of "supporter, believer" as in humanitarian).[44] The earliest known written use is attributed to actress, writer and abolitionist Fanny Kemble, in her Journal of a Residence on a Georgian plantation in 1838–1839.[i]


Vegetarianism can be traced to Indus Valley Civilization in 3300–1300 BCE in the Indian subcontinent,[47][48][49] particularly in northern and western ancient India.[50] Early vegetarians included Indian philosophers such as Mahavira and Acharya Kundakunda, the Tamil poet Valluvar, the Indian emperors Chandragupta Maurya and Ashoka; Greek philosophers such as EmpedoclesTheophrastusPlutarchPlotinus, and Porphyry; and the Roman poet Ovid and the playwright Seneca the Younger.[51][52] The Greek sage Pythagoras may have advocated an early form of strict vegetarianism,[53][54] but his life is so obscure that it is disputed whether he ever advocated any form of vegetarianism at all.[55] He almost certainly prohibited his followers from eating beans[55] and from wearing woolen garments.[55] Eudoxus of Cnidus, a student of Archytas and Plato, writes that "Pythagoras was distinguished by such purity and so avoided killing and killers that he not only abstained from animal foods, but even kept his distance from cooks and hunters".[55] One of the earliest known vegans was the Arab poet al-Maʿarri (c. 973 – c. 1057).[b][56] Their arguments were based on health, the transmigration of soulsanimal welfare, and the view—espoused by Porphyry in De Abstinentia ab Esu Animalium ("On Abstinence from Animal Food", c. 268 – c. 270)—that if humans deserve justice, then so do animals.[51]

Vegetarianism established itself as a significant movement in 19th-century Britain and the United States.[57] A minority of vegetarians avoided animal food entirely.[58] In 1813, the poet Percy Bysshe Shelley published A Vindication of Natural Diet, advocating "abstinence from animal food and spirituous liquors", and in 1815, William Lambe, a London physician, stated that his "water and vegetable diet" could cure anything from tuberculosis to acne.[59] Lambe called animal food a "habitual irritation", and argued that "milk eating and flesh-eating are but branches of a common system and they must stand or fall together".[60] Sylvester Graham's meatless Graham diet—mostly fruit, vegetables, water, and bread made at home with stoneground flour—became popular as a health remedy in the 1830s in the United States.[61] Several vegan communities were established around this time. In Massachusetts, Amos Bronson Alcott, father of the novelist Louisa May Alcott, opened the Temple School in 1834 and Fruitlands in 1844,[62][j] and in England, James Pierrepont Greaves founded the Concordium, a vegan community at Alcott House on Ham Common, in 1838.[8][64]

Vegetarian Society

Fruitlands, a short-lived vegan community established in 1844 by Amos Bronson Alcott in Harvard, Massachusetts.
photograph of Gandhi and Salt
Mahatma Gandhi, Vegetarian Society, London, 20 November 1931, with Henry Salt on his right[k]

In 1843, members of Alcott House created the British and Foreign Society for the Promotion of Humanity and Abstinence from Animal Food,[66] led by Sophia Chichester, a wealthy benefactor of Alcott House.[67] Alcott House also helped to establish the UK Vegetarian Society, which held its first meeting in 1847 in Ramsgate, Kent.[68] The Medical Times and Gazette in London reported in 1884:

There are two kinds of Vegetarians—one an extreme form, the members of which eat no animal food products what-so-ever; and a less extreme sect, who do not object to eggs, milk, or fish. The Vegetarian Society ... belongs to the latter more moderate division.[58]

An article in the Society's magazine, the Vegetarian Messenger, in 1851 discussed alternatives to shoe leather, which suggests the presence of vegans within the membership who rejected animal use entirely, not only in diet.[69] By the 1886 publication of Henry S. Salt's A Plea for Vegetarianism and Other Essays, he asserts that, "It is quite true that most—not all—Food Reformers admit into their diet such animal food as milk, butter, cheese, and eggs..."[70] Russell Thacher Trall's The Hygeian Home Cook-Book published in 1874 is the first known vegan cookbook in America.[71] The book contains recipes "without the employment of milk, sugar, salt, yeast, acids, alkalies, grease, or condiments of any kind."[71] An early vegan cookbook, Rupert H. Wheldon's No Animal Food: Two Essays and 100 Recipes, was published in London in 1910.[72] The consumption of milk and eggs became a battleground over the following decades. There were regular discussions about it in the Vegetarian Messenger; it appears from the correspondence pages that many opponents of veganism came from vegetarians.[11][73]

During a visit to London in 1931, Mahatma Gandhi—who had joined the Vegetarian Society's executive committee when he lived in London from 1888 to 1891—gave a speech to the Society arguing that it ought to promote a meat-free diet as a matter of morality, not health.[65][74] Lacto-vegetarians acknowledged the ethical consistency of the vegan position but regarded a vegan diet as impracticable and were concerned that it might be an impediment to spreading vegetarianism if vegans found themselves unable to participate in social circles where no non-animal food was available. This became the predominant view of the Vegetarian Society, which in 1935 stated: "The lacto-vegetarians, on the whole, do not defend the practice of consuming the dairy products except on the ground of expediency."[73]

Vegan etymology (1944)

In August 1944, several members of the Vegetarian Society asked that a section of its newsletter be devoted to non-dairy vegetarianism. When the request was turned down, Donald Watson, secretary of the Leicester branch, set up a new quarterly newsletter in November 1944, priced tuppence.[10] He called it The Vegan News. He chose the word vegan himself, based on "the first three and last two letters of 'vegetarian'" because it marked, in Mr Watson's words, "the beginning and end of vegetarian",[10][76] but asked his readers if they could think of anything better than vegan to stand for "non-dairy vegetarian". They suggested allveganeo-vegetariandairybanvitanbenevoresanivores, and beaumangeur.[10][77]

The first edition attracted more than 100 letters, including from George Bernard Shaw, who resolved to give up eggs and dairy.[11] The new Vegan Society held its first meeting in early November at the Attic Club, 144 High Holborn, London. Those in attendance were Donald Watson, Elsie B. Shrigley, Fay K. Henderson, Alfred Hy Haffenden, Paul Spencer and Bernard Drake, with Mme Pataleewa (Barbara Moore, a Russian-British engineer) observing.[78] World Vegan Day is held every 1 November to mark the founding of the Society and the month of November is considered by the Society to be World Vegan Month.[79]

photograph of Moore in 1961
Barbara Moore attended the first meeting of the Vegan Society as an observer.[78]

The Vegan News changed its name to The Vegan in November 1945, by which time it had 500 subscribers.[80] It published recipes and a "vegan trade list" of animal-free products, such as toothpastes, shoe polishes, stationery and glue.[81] Vegan books appeared, including Vegan Recipes by Fay K. Henderson and Aids to a Vegan Diet for Children by Kathleen V. Mayo.[82]

The Vegan Society soon made clear that it rejected the use of animals for any purpose, not only in diet. In 1947, Watson wrote: "The vegan renounces it as superstitious that human life depends upon the exploitation of these creatures whose feelings are much the same as our own ...".[83] From 1948, The Vegan's front page read: "Advocating living without exploitation", and in 1951, the Society published its definition of veganism as "the doctrine that man should live without exploiting animals".[83][84] In 1956, its vice-president, Leslie Cross, founded the Plantmilk Society; and in 1965, as Plantmilk Ltd and later Plamil Foods, it began production of one of the first widely distributed soy milks in the Western world.[85]

The first vegan society in the United States was founded in 1948 by Catherine Nimmo and Rubin Abramowitz in California, who distributed Watson's newsletter.[86][87] In 1960, H. Jay Dinshah founded the American Vegan Society (AVS), linking veganism to the concept of ahimsa, "non-harming" in Sanskrit.[87][88][89] According to Joanne Stepaniak, the word vegan was first published independently in 1962 by the Oxford Illustrated Dictionary, defined as "a vegetarian who eats no butter, eggs, cheese, or milk".[90]

Increasing interest

Alternative food movements

In the 1960s and 1970s, a vegetarian food movement emerged as part of the counterculture in the United States that focused on concerns about diet, the environment, and a distrust of food producers, leading to increasing interest in organic gardening.[91][92] One of the most influential vegetarian books of that time was Frances Moore Lappé's 1971 text, Diet for a Small Planet.[93] It sold more than three million copies and suggested "getting off the top of the food chain".[94]

The following decades saw research by a group of scientists and doctors in the United States, including physicians Dean OrnishCaldwell EsselstynNeal D. BarnardJohn A. McDougallMichael Greger, and biochemist T. Colin Campbell, who argued that diets based on animal fat and animal protein, such as the Western pattern diet, were detrimental to health.[95] They produced a series of books that recommend vegan or vegetarian diets, including McDougall's The McDougall Plan (1983), John Robbins's Diet for a New America (1987), which associated meat eating with environmental damage, and Dr. Dean Ornish's Program for Reversing Heart Disease (1990).[96] In 2003 two major North American dietitians' associations indicated that well-planned vegan diets were suitable for all life stages.[97][98] This was followed by the film Earthlings (2005), Campbell's The China Study (2005), Rory Freedman and Kim Barnouin's Skinny Bitch (2005), Jonathan Safran Foer's Eating Animals (2009), and the film Forks over Knives (2011).[99]

In the 1980s, veganism became associated with punk subculture and ideologies, particularly straight edge hardcore punk in the United States;[100] and anarcho-punk in the United Kingdom.[101] This association continues on into the 21st century, as evinced by the prominence of vegan punk events such as Fluff Fest in Europe.[102][103]


The vegan diet became increasingly mainstream in the 2010s,[40][41][104] especially in the latter half.[41][105] The Economist declared 2019 "the year of the vegan".[106] The European Parliament defined the meaning of vegan for food labels in 2010, in force as of 2015.[107] Chain restaurants began marking vegan items on their menus and supermarkets improved their selection of vegan-processed food.[108]

The global mock-meat market increased by 18 percent between 2005 and 2010,[109] and in the United States by eight percent between 2012 and 2015, to $553 million a year.[110] The Vegetarian Butcher (De Vegetarische Slager), the first known vegetarian butcher shop, selling mock meats, opened in the Netherlands in 2010,[109][111] while America's first vegan butcher, the Herbivorous Butcher, opened in Minneapolis in 2016.[110][112] Since 2017, more than 12,500 chain restaurant locations have begun offering Beyond Meat and Impossible Foods products including Carl's Jr. outlets offering Beyond Burgers and Burger King outlets serving Impossible Whoppers. Plant-based meat sales in the U.S have grown 37% in the past two years.[113]

In 2017, the United States School Nutrition Association found 14% of school districts across the country were serving vegan school meals compared to 11.5% of schools offering vegan lunch in 2016,[114] reflecting a change happening in many parts of the world including Brazil and England.

By 2016, 49% of Americans were drinking plant milk, and 91% still drank dairy milk.[115] In the United Kingdom, the plant milk market increased by 155 percent in two years, from 36 million litres (63 million imperial pints) in 2011 to 92 million (162 million imperial pints) in 2013.[116] There was a 185% increase in new vegan products between 2012 and 2016 in the UK.[105] In 2011, Europe's first vegan supermarkets appeared in Germany: Vegilicious in Dortmund and Veganz in Berlin.[117][118]

In 2017, veganism rose in popularity in Hong Kong and China, particularly among millennials.[119] China's vegan market is estimated to rise by more than 17% between 2015 and 2020,[119][120] which is expected to be "the fastest growth rate internationally in that period".[119] This exceeds the projected growth in the second and third fastest-growing vegan markets internationally in the same period, the United Arab Emirates (10.6%) and Australia (9.6%) respectively.[120][121] In total, as of 2016, the largest share of vegan consumers globally currently reside in Asia Pacific with nine percent of people following a vegan diet.[120] In 2013, the Oktoberfest in Munich — traditionally a meat-heavy event — offered vegan dishes for the first time in its 200-year history.[122]

In 2018, the book The End of Animal Farming by Jacy Reese Anthis argued that veganism will completely replace animal-based food by 2100.[123] The book was featured in The Guardian,[124] The New Republic,[125] and Forbes, among other newspapers and magazines.[126]

photograph of Veganz storefront
Veganz in Berlin, Europe's first vegan supermarket

Veganism by country

  •  Australia: Australians topped Google's worldwide searches for the word "vegan" between mid-2015 and mid-2016.[127] A Euromonitor International study concluded the market for packaged vegan food in Australia would rise 9.6% per year between 2015 and 2020, making Australia the third-fastest growing vegan market behind China and the United Arab Emirates.[120][121]
  •  Austria: In 2013, Kurier estimated that 0.5 percent of Austrians practised veganism, and in the capital, Vienna, 0.7 percent.[128]
  •  Belgium: A 2016 iVOX online study found that out of 1000 Dutch-speaking residents of Flanders and Brussels of 18 years and over, 0.3 percent were vegan.[129]
  •  Canada: In 2018, one survey estimated that 2.1 percent of adult Canadians considered themselves as vegans.[130]
  •  Germany: As of 2016, data estimated that people following a vegan diet in Germany varied between 0.1% and 1% of the population (between 81,000 and 810,000 persons).[28]
  •  India: In the 2005–06 National Health Survey, 1.6% of the surveyed population reported never consuming animal products. Veganism was most common in the states of Gujarat (4.9%) and Maharashtra (4.0%).[131]
  •  Israel: Five percent (approx. 300,000) in Israel said they were vegan in 2014, making it the highest per capita vegan population in the world.[132] A 2015 survey by Globes and Israel's Channel 2 News similarly found 5% of Israelis were vegan.[133] Veganism increased among Israeli Arabs.[134] The Israeli army made special provision for vegan soldiers in 2015, which included providing non-leather boots and wool-free berets.[135] Veganism also simplifies adherence to the Judaic prohibition on combining meat and milk in meals.
  •  Italy: Between 0.6 and three percent of Italians were reported to be vegan as of 2015.[136]
  •  Netherlands: In 2018, the Dutch Society for Veganism (Nederlandse Vereniging voor Veganisme) estimated there were more than 100,000 Dutch vegans (0.59 percent), based on their membership growth.[137]
  •  Romania: Followers of the Romanian Orthodox Church keep fast during several periods throughout the ecclesiastical calendar amounting to a majority of the year. In the Romanian Orthodox tradition, devotees abstain from eating any animal products during these times. As a result, vegan foods are abundant in stores and restaurants; however, Romanians may not be familiar with a vegan diet as a full-time lifestyle choice.[138]
  •  Sweden: Four percent said they were vegan in a 2014 Demoskop poll.[139]
  •   Switzerland: Market research company DemoSCOPE estimated in 2017 that three percent of the population was vegan.[140]
  •  United Kingdom: In the UK, where the tofu and mock-meats market was worth £786.5 million in 2012, two percent said they were vegan in a 2007 government survey.[141] A 2016 Ipsos MORI study commissioned by the Vegan Society, surveying almost 10,000 people aged 15 or over across England, Scotland, and Wales, found that 1.05 percent were vegan; the Vegan Society estimates that 542,000 in the UK follow a vegan diet.[142] According to a 2018 survey by Comparethemarket.com, the number of people who identify as vegans in the United Kingdom has risen to over 3.5 million, which is approximately seven percent of the population, and environmental concerns were a major factor in this development.[143] However, doubt was cast on this inflated figure by the UK-based Vegan Society, who perform their own regular survey: the Vegan Society themselves found in 2018 that there were 600,000 vegans in Great Britain (1.16%), which was seen as a dramatic increase on previous figures.[144][145] In 2020, a court ruled that ethical veganism was a protected belief under the Equality Act 2010, meaning employers cannot discriminate against vegans.[146]
  •  United States: Estimates of vegans in the U.S. in past varied from 2% (Gallup, 2012)[147] to 0.5% (Faunalytics, 2014). According to the latter, 70% of those who adopted a vegan diet abandoned it.[148] However, Top Trends in Prepared Foods 2017, a report by GlobalData, estimated that "6% of US consumers now claim to be vegan, up from just 1% in 2014."[149]

Animal products

photograph of aisle in Veganz

Mock meats in Veganz, a vegan supermarket in Berlin


Vegan Society sunflower:
certified vegan, no animal testing

PETA bunny:
certified vegan, no animal testing

Leaping bunny:
no animal testing, might not be vegan

While vegans broadly abstain from animal products, there are many ways in which animal products are used, and different and individuals and organizations that identify with the practice of veganism may use some limited animal products based on philosophy, means or other concerns. Philosopher Gary Steiner argues that it is not possible to be entirely vegan, because animal use and products are "deeply and imperceptibly woven into the fabric of human society".[150]

Animal Ingredients A to Z (2004) and Veganissimo A to Z (2013) list which ingredients might be animal-derived. The British Vegan Society's sunflower logo and PETA's bunny logo mean the product is certified vegan, which includes no animal testing. The Leaping Bunny logo signals no animal testing, but it might not be vegan.[151][152] The Vegan Society criteria for vegan certification are that the product contain no animal products, and that neither the finished item nor its ingredients have been tested on animals by, or on behalf of, the manufacturer or by anyone over whom the manufacturer has control. Its website contains a list of certified products,[153][154] as does Australia's Choose Cruelty Free (CCF).[155] The British Vegan Society will certify a product only if it is free of animal involvement as far as possible and practical, including animal testing,[156][153][157] but "recognises that it is not always possible to make a choice that avoids the use of animals",[158] an issue that was highlighted in 2016 when it became known that the UK's newly introduced £5 note contained tallow.[159][160]

Meat, eggs and dairy

photograph of farm hens in battery cages
Modern methods of factory farming are considered highly unethical by most vegans.

Like vegetarians vegans do not eat meat (including beefporkpoultryfowlgame, animal seafood). The main difference between a vegan and vegetarian diet is that vegans exclude dairy products and eggs. Ethical vegans avoid them on the premise that their production causes animal suffering and premature death. In egg production, most male chicks are culled because they do not lay eggs.[161] To obtain milk from dairy cattle, cows are made pregnant to induce lactation; they are kept lactating for three to seven years, then slaughtered. Female calves can be separated from their mothers within 24 hours of birth, and fed milk replacer to retain the cow's milk for human consumption. Most male calves are slaughtered at birth, sent for veal production, or reared for beef.[162][163]


Many clothing products may be made of animal products such as silkwool (including lambswoolshearlingcashmereangoramohair, and a number of other fine wools), fur, feathers, pearls, animal-derived dyes, leather, snakeskin, or other kinds of skin or animal product. While dietary vegans might use animal products in clothing, toiletries, and similar, ethical veganism extends not only to matters of food but also to the wearing or use of animal products, and rejects the commodification of animals altogether.[19]:62 Most leather clothing is made from cow skins. Some vegans regard the purchase of leather, particularly from cows, as financial support for the meat industry.[164]:115 Vegans may wear clothing items and accessories made of non-animal-derived materials such as hemp, linen, cotton, canvas, polyester, artificial leather (pleather), rubber, and vinyl.[164]:16 Leather alternatives can come from materials such as cork, piña (from pineapples), cactus, and mushroom leather.[165][166][167] Some vegan clothes, in particular leather alternatives, are made of petroleum-based products, which has triggered criticism because of the environmental damage involved in their production.[168]


photograph of vegan soap bar
Vegan soap made from olive oil; soap is usually made from tallow (animal fat).

Vegans replace personal care products and household cleaners containing animal products with products that are vegan, such as vegan dental floss made of bamboo fiber. Animal ingredients are ubiquitous because they are relatively inexpensive. After animals are slaughtered for meat, the leftovers are put through a rendering process and some of that material, particularly the fat, is used in toiletries.

Common animal-derived ingredients include: tallow in soap; collagen-derived glycerine, which used as a lubricant and humectant in many haircare products, moisturizers, shaving foams, soaps and toothpastes;[169] lanolin from sheep's wool is often found in lip balm and moisturizers; stearic acid is a common ingredient in face creams, shaving foam and shampoos, (as with glycerine, it can be plant-based, but is usually animal-derived); Lactic acid, an alpha-hydroxy acid derived from animal milk, is used in moisturizers; allantoin— from the comfrey plant or cows' urine —is found in shampoos, moisturizers and toothpaste;[169] and carmine from scale insects, such as the female cochineal, is used in food and cosmetics to produce red and pink shades;[170][171]

Beauty Without Cruelty, founded as a charity in 1959, was one of the earliest manufacturers and certifiers of animal-free personal care products.[172]

Insect products

Vegan groups disagree about insect products.[173] Neither the Vegan Society nor the American Vegan Society considers honey, silk, and other insect products as suitable for vegans.[174][157] Some vegans believe that exploiting the labor of bees and harvesting their energy source is immoral, and that commercial beekeeping operations can harm and even kill bees.[175] Insect products can be defined much more widely, as commercial bees are used to pollinate about 100 different food crops.[173]

Pet food

Due to the environmental impact of meat-based pet food[176][177] and the ethical problems it poses for vegans,[178][179][180][181][182][183] some vegans extend their philosophy to include the diets of pets.[177][184][185][186] This is particularly true for domesticated cats[187] and dogs,[188] for which vegan pet food is both available and nutritionally complete,[177][184][185] such as Vegepet. This practice has been met with caution and criticism,[184][189] especially regarding vegan cat diets because felids are obligate carnivores.[183][184][189] Nutritionally complete vegan pet diets are comparable to meat-based ones for cats and dogs.[190] A 2015 study found that 6 out of 24 commercial vegan pet food brands do not meet the Association of American Feed Control Officials (AAFCO) labeling regulations for amino acid adequacy.[191]

Other products

An important concern is the case of medications, which are routinely tested on animals to ensure they are effective and safe,[192] and may also contain animal ingredients, such as lactose, gelatine, or stearates.[158] There may be no alternatives to prescribed medication or these alternatives may be unsuitable, less effective, or have more adverse side effects.[158] Experimentation with laboratory animals is also used for evaluating the safety of vaccines, food additives, cosmetics, household products, workplace chemicals, and many other substances.[193] Vegans may avoid certain vaccines; the flu vaccine, for example, is usually grown in hens' eggs. An effective alternative, Flublok, is widely available in the United States.[194]

Fruits and vegetables, even from organic farms, often use animal manure as a fertilizer. This manure may be bought from factory farms and thus may be relevant to vegans for ethical or environmental reasons. "Vegan" vegetables use plant compost only.[195]

Vegan diet

Vegan diets are based on grains and other seedslegumes (particularly beans), fruitsvegetablesedible mushrooms, and nuts.[196]

photograph of tofu with sauce
Warm tofu (soybean curd) with garlic sauce


Meatless products made from soybeans (tofu), or wheat-based seitan are sources of plant protein, commonly in the form of vegetarian sausagemince, and veggie burgers.[197] Soy-based dishes are common in vegan diets because soy is a protein source.[198] They are consumed most often in the form of soy milk and tofu (bean curd), which is soy milk mixed with a coagulant. Tofu comes in a variety of textures, depending on water content, from firm, medium firm and extra firm for stews and stir-fries to soft or silken for salad dressings, desserts and shakes. Soy is also eaten in the form of tempeh and textured vegetable protein (TVP); also known as textured soy protein (TSP), the latter is often used in pasta sauces.[198]

Plant milk, cheese, mayonnaise

Plant milks—such as soy milkalmond milkcashew milkgrain milks (oat milk, flax milk and rice milk), hemp milk, and coconut milk—are used in place of cows' or goats' milk.[l] Soy milk provides around 7 g (¼oz) of protein per cup (240 mL or 8 fl oz), compared with 8 g (2/7oz) of protein per cup of cow's milk. Almond milk is lower in dietary energy, carbohydrates, and protein.[203] Soy milk should not be used as a replacement for breast milk for babies. Babies who are not breastfed may be fed commercial infant formula, normally based on cows' milk or soy. The latter is known as soy-based infant formula or SBIF.[204][205]

Butter and margarine can be replaced with alternate vegan products.[206] Vegan cheeses are made from seeds, such as sesame and sunflower; nuts, such as cashew,[207] pine nut, and almond;[208] and soybeans, coconut oil, nutritional yeasttapioca,[209] and rice, among other ingredients; and can replicate the meltability of dairy cheese. Nutritional yeast is a common substitute for the taste of cheese in vegan recipes.[206] Cheese substitutes can be made at home, including from nuts, such as cashews.[207]

Egg replacements

Tofu can be used as an egg replacement

As of 2019 in the United States, there were numerous vegan egg substitutes available, including products used for "scrambled" eggs, cakes, cookies, and doughnuts.[210][211] Baking powder, silken (soft) tofu, mashed potato, bananas, flaxseeds, and aquafaba from chickpeas can also be used as egg substitutes.[206][211][212]

Raw veganism

Raw veganism, combining veganism and raw foodism, excludes all animal products and food cooked above 48 °C (118 °F). A raw vegan diet includes vegetables, fruits, nuts, grain and legume sprouts, seeds, and sea vegetables. There are many variations of the diet, including fruitarianism.[213]



photograph rice-and-beans dish
Rice and beans is a common vegan protein combination.

Proteins are composed of amino acids. Vegans obtain all their protein from plants, omnivores usually a third, and ovo-lacto vegetarians half.[214] Sources of plant protein include legumes such as soy beans (consumed as tofu, tempehtextured vegetable protein, soy milk, and edamame), peas, peanuts, black beans, and chickpeas (the latter often eaten as hummus); grains such as quinoa, brown rice, corn, barley, bulgur, and wheat (the latter eaten as bread and seitan); and nuts and seeds. Combinations that contain high amounts of all the essential amino acids include rice and beans, corn and beans, and hummus and whole-wheat pita.[215]

Soy beans and quinoa are known as complete proteins because they each contain all the essential amino acids in amounts that meet or exceed human requirements.[216] Mangels et al. write that consuming the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) of protein—0.8 g/kg (12gr/lb) of body weight—in the form of soy will meet the biologic requirement for amino acids.[198] In 2012, the United States Department of Agriculture ruled that soy protein (tofu) may replace meat protein in the National School Lunch Program.[217]

The American Dietetic Association said in 2009 that a variety of plant foods consumed over the course of a day can provide all the essential amino acids for healthy adults, which means that protein combining in the same meal is generally not necessary.[218] Mangels et al. write that there is little reason to advise vegans to increase their protein intake; but erring on the side of caution, they recommend a 25 percent increase over the RDA for adults, to 1g/kg (15gr/lb) of body weight.[219]

Vitamin B12

photograph of food in caption
Tahini miso soup with brown riceturnipssquashradishes and nori (an edible seaweed). Nori has been cited as a plant source of B12,[220] but the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics established in 2016 that is not an adequate source of this vitamin. Vegans need to consume regularly fortified foods or supplements containing B12.[34]

Vitamin B12 is a bacterial product needed for cell division, the formation and maturation of red blood cells, the synthesis of DNA, and normal nerve function. A deficiency may cause megaloblastic anaemia and neurological damage, and, if untreated, may lead to death.[35][221][m] The high content of folacin in vegetarian diets may mask the hematological symptoms of vitamin B12 deficiency, so it may go undetected until neurological signs in the late stages are evident, which can be irreversible, such as neuropsychiatric abnormalities, neuropathy, dementia and, occasionally, atrophy of optic nerves.[22][33][223] Vegans sometimes fail to obtain enough B12 from their diet because among non-fortified foods, only those of animal origin contain sufficient amounts.[33][223][n] The best source is ruminant food.[36] Vegetarians are also at risk, as are older people and those with certain medical conditions.[225][226] A 2013 study found that "vegetarians develop B12 depletion or deficiency regardless of demographic characteristics, place of residency, age, or type of vegetarian diet. Vegans should take preventive measures to ensure adequate intake of this vitamin, including regular consumption of supplements containing B12."[o]

B12 is produced in nature only by certain bacteria and archaea; it is not made by any animal, fungus, or plant.[36][228][229] It is synthesized by some gut bacteria in humans and other animals, but humans cannot absorb the B12 made in their guts, as it is made in the colon which is too far from the small intestine, where absorption of B12 occurs.[36] Ruminants, such as cows and sheep, absorb B12 produced by bacteria in their guts.[36]

Animals store vitamin B12 in liver and muscle and some pass the vitamin into their eggs and milk; meat, liver, eggs and milk are therefore sources of B12.[230][231]

It has been suggested that nori (an edible seaweed), tempeh (a fermented soybean food), and nutritional yeast may be sources of vitamin B12.[220][p][233][q] In 2016, the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics established that nori, fermented foods (such as tempeh), spirulinachlorella algae, and unfortified nutritional yeast are not adequate sources of vitamin B12 and that vegans need to consume regularly fortified foods or supplements containing B12. Otherwise, vitamin B12 deficiency may develop, as has been demonstrated in case studies of vegan infants, children, and adults.[34]

Vitamin B12 is mostly manufactured by industrial fermentation of various kinds of bacteria, which make forms of cyanocobalamin, which are further processed to generate the ingredient included in supplements and fortified foods.[235][236] The Pseudomonas denitrificans strain was most commonly used as of 2017.[237][238] It is grown in a medium containing sucroseyeast extract, and several metallic salts. To increase vitamin production, it is supplemented with sugar beet molasses, or, less frequently, with choline.[237] Certain brands of B12 supplements are certified vegan.[221]


photograph of various vegan cheeses
Vegan cheeses

Calcium is needed to maintain bone health and for several metabolic functions, including muscle functionvascular contraction and vasodilation, nerve transmission, intracellular signalling, and hormonal secretion. Ninety-nine percent of the body's calcium is stored in the bones and teeth.[239][240][241]:35–74 High-calcium foods may include fortified plant milkkalecollards and raw garlic as common vegetable sources.[242]

A 2007 report based on the Oxford cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition, which began in 1993, suggested that vegans have an increased risk of bone fractures over meat eaters and vegetarians, likely because of lower dietary calcium intake. The study found that vegans consuming at least 525 mg of calcium daily have a risk of fractures similar to that of other groups.[r][245] A 2009 study found the bone mineral density (BMD) of vegans was 94 percent that of omnivores, but deemed the difference clinically insignificant.[246][s]

Vitamin D

Vitamin D (calciferol) is needed for several functions, including calcium absorption, enabling mineralization of bone, and bone growth. Without it bones can become thin and brittle; together with calcium it offers protection against osteoporosis. Vitamin D is produced in the body when ultraviolet rays from the sun hit the skin; outdoor exposure is needed because UVB radiation does not penetrate glass. It is present in salmontunamackerel and cod liver oil, with small amounts in cheese, egg yolks, and beef liver, and in some mushrooms.[248]

Most vegan diets contain little or no vitamin D without fortified food. People with little sun exposure may need supplements. The extent to which sun exposure is sufficient depends on the season, time of day, cloud and smog cover, skin melanin content, and whether sunscreen is worn. According to the National Institutes of Health, most people can obtain and store sufficient vitamin D from sunlight in the spring, summer, and fall, even in the far north. They report that some researchers recommend 5–30 minutes of sun exposure without sunscreen between 10 am and 3 pm, at least twice a week. Tanning beds emitting 2–6% UVB radiation have a similar effect, though tanning is inadvisable.[248][249]

Vitamin D comes in two forms. Cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) is synthesized in the skin after exposure to the sun or consumed from food, usually from animal sources. Ergocalciferol (vitamin D2) is derived from ergosterol from UV-exposed mushrooms or yeast and is suitable for vegans. When produced industrially as supplements, vitamin D3 is typically derived from lanolin in sheep's wool. However, both provitamins and vitamins D2 and D3 have been discovered in Cladina spp. (especially Cladina rangiferina)[250] and these edible lichen are harvested in the wild for producing vegan vitamin D3.[251] Conflicting studies have suggested that the two forms of vitamin D may or may not be bioequivalent.[252] According to researchers from the Institute of Medicine, the differences between vitamins D2 and D3 do not affect metabolism, both function as prohormones, and when activated exhibit identical responses in the body.[253]


photograph of food in caption
Oatmeal with blueberries, toasted almonds and almond milk; one packet of instant oatmeal contains 8.2 mg (1/8gr) of iron.[254]

In some cases iron and the zinc levels of vegans may also be of concern because of the limited bioavailability of these minerals.[31] There are concerns about the bioavailability of iron from plant foods, assumed by some researchers to be 5–15 percent compared to 18 percent from a non-vegetarian diet.[255] Iron-deficiency anemia is found as often in non-vegetarians as in vegetarians, and vegetarians' iron stores are lower.[256]

Due to the lower bioavailability of iron from plant sources, the Food and Nutrition Board of the National Academy of Sciences established a separate RDA for vegetarians and vegans of 14 mg (¼gr) for vegetarian men and postmenopausal women, and 33 mg (½gr) for premenopausal women not using oral contraceptives.[257] It is recommended that supplements should be used with caution after consulting a physician, because iron can accumulate in the body and cause damage to organs.[citation needed] This is particularly true of anyone with hemochromatosis, a relatively common condition that can remain undiagnosed.[258]

High-iron vegan foods include soybeansblackstrap molasses, black beans, lentilschickpeasspinachtempehtofu, and lima beans.[259][260] Iron absorption can be enhanced by eating a source of vitamin C at the same time,[261] such as half a cup of cauliflower or five fluid ounces of orange juiceCoffee and some herbal teas can inhibit iron absorption, as can spices that contain tannins such as turmericcoriander, chiles, and tamarind.[260]

Omega-3 fatty acids, iodine

Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), an omega-3 fatty acid, is found in walnuts, seeds, and vegetable oils, such as canola and flaxseed oil.[262] EPA and DHA, the other primary omega-3 fatty acids, are found only in animal products and algae.[263] Iodine supplementation may be necessary for vegans in countries where salt is not typically iodized, where it is iodized at low levels, or where, as in Britain and Ireland, dairy products are relied upon for iodine delivery because of low levels in the soil.[264] Iodine can be obtained from most vegan multivitamins or regular consumption of seaweeds, such as kelp.[265]

Health effects

supermarket freezer stocked with packaged food
Vegan products in a supermarket (Oceanside, California, 2014)

There is inconsistent evidence for vegan diets providing a protective effect against metabolic syndrome.[29] Vegan diets appear to help weight loss, especially in the short term.[30] There is some tentative evidence of an association between vegan diets and a reduced risk of cancer.[266] A vegan diet offers no benefit over other types of healthy diet in helping with high blood pressure.[267]

Eliminating all animal products increases the risk of deficiencies of vitamins B12 and D, calcium, and omega-3 fatty acids.[31] Vitamin B12 deficiency occurs in up to 80% of vegans that do not supplement with vitamin B12.[268] Vegans are at risk of low bone mineral density without supplements.[31][269] Lack of B12 inhibits normal function of the nervous system.[270][271]

Professional and government associations

The American Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics and Dietitians of Canada state that properly planned vegan diets are appropriate for all life stages, including pregnancy and lactation.[272] They indicate that vegetarian diets may be more common among adolescents with eating disorders, but that its adoption may serve to camouflage a disorder rather than cause one. The Australian National Health and Medical Research Council similarly recognizes a well-planned vegan diet as viable for any age,[22][273][24] as does the New Zealand Ministry of Health,[274] British National Health Service,[275] British Nutrition Foundation,[276] Dietitians Association of Australia,[277] United States Department of Agriculture,[278] Mayo Clinic,[279] Canadian Pediatric Society,[280] and Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada.[281] The British National Health Service's Eatwell Plate allows for an entirely plant-based diet,[282] as does the United States Department of Agriculture's (USDA) MyPlate.[283][284] The USDA allows tofu to replace meat in the National School Lunch Program.[217]

The German Society for Nutrition does not recommend a vegan diet for babies, children and adolescents, or for women pregnant or breastfeeding.[28] Harvard Medical School has commented that "plant-based eating is recognized as not only nutritionally sufficient but also as a way to reduce the risk for many chronic illnesses".[26] Kaiser Permanente, the largest healthcare organization in the United States, has written, "Research shows that plant-based diets are cost-effective, low-risk interventions that may lower body mass index, blood pressure, HbA1C, and cholesterol levels. They may also reduce the number of medications needed to treat chronic diseases and lower ischemic heart disease mortality rates."[285] The American Institute for Cancer Research has stated, "When focusing on specific types of vegetarian diets, the vegan diets showed protection for overall cancer incidence also."[286]

Pregnancy, infants and children

The Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics and Dietitians of Canada consider well-planned vegetarian and vegan diets "appropriate for individuals during all stages of the lifecycle, including pregnancy, lactation, infancy, childhood, and adolescence, and for athletes".[22] The German Society for Nutrition cautioned against a vegan diet for pregnant women, breastfeeding women, babies, children, and adolescents.[28] The position of the Canadian Pediatric Society is that "well-planned vegetarian and vegan diets with appropriate attention to specific nutrient components can provide a healthy alternative lifestyle at all stages of fetal, infant, child and adolescent growth. It is recommended that attention should be given to nutrient intake, particularly protein, vitamins B12 and D, essential fatty acids, iron, zinc, and calcium.[280]

According to a 2015 systematic review, there is little evidence available about vegetarian and vegan diets during pregnancy, and a lack of randomized studies meant that the effects of diet could not be distinguished from confounding factors.[287] It concluded: "Within these limits, vegan-vegetarian diets may be considered safe in pregnancy, provided that attention is paid to vitamin and trace element requirements."[287] A daily source of vitamin B12 is important for pregnant and lactating vegans, as is vitamin D if there are concerns about low sun exposure.[t] A different review found that pregnant vegetarians consumed less zinc than pregnant non-vegetarians, with both groups' intake below recommended levels; however, the review found no significant difference between groups in actual zinc levels in bodily tissues, nor any effect on gestation period or birth weight.[288]

Researchers have reported cases of vitamin B12 deficiency in lactating vegetarian mothers that were linked to deficiencies and neurological disorders in their children.[289][290] It is recommended that a doctor or registered dietitian should be consulted about taking supplements during pregnancy.[291][292]

Vegan diets have attracted negative attention from the media because of cases of nutritional deficiencies that have come to the attention of the courts, including the death of a baby in New Zealand in 2002 due to hypocobalaminemia, i.e. vitamin B12 deficiency.[32]


Ethical veganism

photograph of pigs in barn
Pigs, as well as chicken and cattle, often have their movement restricted

Ethical veganism, also known as moral vegetarianism, is based on opposition to speciesism, the assignment of value to individuals on the basis of (animal) species membership alone. Divisions within animal rights theory include the utilitarianprotectionist approach, which pursues improved conditions for animals. It also pertains to the rights-based abolitionism, which seeks to end human ownership of non-humans, including as pets. Abolitionists argue that protectionism serves only to make the public feel that animal use can be morally unproblematic (the "happy meat" position).[19]:62–63

Donald Watson, the first vegan activist and founder of The Vegan Society, stated in response to a question on why he was an ethical vegan, "If an open-minded, honest person pursues a course long enough, and listens to all the criticisms, and in one's own mind can satisfactorily meet all the criticisms against that idea, sooner or later one's resistance against what one sees as evil tradition has to be discarded."[293] On bloodsports, he has said that "to kill creatures for fun must be the very dregs," and that vivisection and animal experimentation "is probably the cruelest of all Man's attack on the rest of Creation." He has also stated that "vegetarianism, whilst being a necessary stepping-stone, between meat eating and veganism, is only a stepping stone."[293]

Alex Hershaft, co-founder of the Farm Animal Rights Movement and Holocaust survivor, states he "was always bothered by the idea of hitting a beautiful, living, innocent animal over the head, cutting him up into pieces, then shoving the pieces into [his] mouth," and that his experiences in the Nazi Holocaust allowed him "to empathize with the conditions of animals in factory farms, auction yards, and slaughterhouses" because he "knows firsthand what it's like to be treated like a worthless object."[294]

Law professor Gary Francione, an abolitionist, argues that all sentient beings should have the right not to be treated as property, and that adopting veganism must be the baseline for anyone who believes that non-humans have intrinsic moral value.[u][19]:62 Philosopher Tom Regan, also a rights theorist, argues that animals possess value as "subjects-of-a-life", because they have beliefs, desires, memory and the ability to initiate action in pursuit of goals. The right of subjects-of-a-life not to be harmed can be overridden by other moral principles, but Regan argues that pleasure, convenience and the economic interests of farmers are not weighty enough.[296] Philosopher Peter Singer, a protectionist and utilitarian, argues that there is no moral or logical justification for failing to count animal suffering as a consequence when making decisions, and that killing animals should be rejected unless necessary for survival.[297] Despite this, he writes that "ethical thinking can be sensitive to circumstances", and that he is "not too concerned about trivial infractions".[298]

An argument proposed by Bruce Friedrich, also a protectionist, holds that strict adherence to veganism harms animals, because it focuses on personal purity, rather than encouraging people to give up whatever animal products they can.[299] For Francione, this is similar to arguing that, because human-rights abuses can never be eliminated, we should not defend human rights in situations we control. By failing to ask a server whether something contains animal products, we reinforce that the moral rights of animals are a matter of convenience, he argues. He concludes from this that the protectionist position fails on its own consequentialist terms.[19]:72–73

Philosopher Val Plumwood maintained that ethical veganism is "subtly human-centred", an example of what she called "human/nature dualism" because it views humanity as separate from the rest of nature. Ethical vegans want to admit non-humans into the category that deserves special protection, rather than recognize the "ecological embeddedness" of all.[300] Plumwood wrote that animal food may be an "unnecessary evil" from the perspective of the consumer who "draws on the whole planet for nutritional needs"—and she strongly opposed factory farming—but for anyone relying on a much smaller ecosystem, it is very difficult or impossible to be vegan.[301]

Bioethicist Ben Mepham,[302] in his review of Francione and Garner's book The Animal Rights Debate: Abolition or Regulation?, concludes that "if the aim of ethics is to choose the right, or best, course of action in specific circumstances 'all things considered', it is arguable that adherence to such an absolutist agenda is simplistic and open to serious self-contradictions. Or, as Farlie puts it, with characteristic panache: 'to conclude that veganism is the "only ethical response" is to take a big leap into a very muddy pond'."[303] He cites as examples the adverse effects on animal wildlife derived from the agricultural practices necessary to sustain most vegan diets and the ethical contradiction of favoring the welfare of domesticated animals but not that of wild animals; the imbalance between the resources that are used to promote the welfare of animals as opposed to those destined to alleviate the suffering of the approximately one billion human beings who undergo malnutrition, abuse, and exploitation; the focus on attitudes and conditions in western developed countries, leaving out the rights and interests of societies whose economy, culture and, in some cases, survival rely on a symbiotic relationship with animals.[303]

David Pearce, a transhumanist philosopher, has argued that humanity has a "hedonistic imperative" to not merely avoid cruelty to animals or abolish the ownership of non-human animals, but also to redesign the global ecosystem such that wild animal suffering ceases to exist.[304] In the pursuit of abolishing suffering itself, Pearce promotes predation elimination among animals and the "cross-species global analogue of the welfare state". Fertility regulation could maintain herbivore populations at sustainable levels, "a more civilised and compassionate policy option than famine, predation, and disease".[305] The increasing number of vegans and vegetarians in the transhumanism movement has been attributed in part to Pearce's influence.[306]

A growing political philosophy that incorporates veganism as part of its revolutionary praxis is veganarchism, which seeks "total abolition" or "total liberation" for all animals, including humans. Veganarchists identify the state as unnecessary and harmful to animals, both human and non-human, and advocate for the adoption of a vegan lifestyle within a stateless society. The term was popularized in 1995 with Brian A. Dominick's pamphlet Animal Liberation and Social Revolution, described as "a vegan perspective on anarchism or an anarchist perspective on veganism".[307]

Direct action is a common practice among veganarchists (and anarchists generally) with groups like the Animal Liberation Front (ALF) and Revolutionary Cells – Animal Liberation Brigade (RCALB) often engaging in such activities, sometimes criminally, to further their goals. Steven Best, animal rights activist and professor of philosophy at the University of Texas at El Paso, is an advocate of this approach, and has been critical of vegan activists like Francione for supporting animal liberation, but not total liberation, which would include not only opposition to "the property status of animals", but also "a serious critique of capitalism, the state, property relations, and commodification dynamics in general." In particular, he criticizes the focus on the simplistic and apolitical "Go Vegan" message directed mainly at wealthy Western audiences, while ignoring people of color, the working class and the poor, especially in the developing world, noting that "for every person who becomes vegan, a thousand flesh eaters arise in China, India and Indonesia." The "faith in the singular efficacy of conjectural education and moral persuasion," Best writes, is no substitute for "direct action, mass confrontation, civil disobedience, alliance politics, and struggle for radical change."[308] Donald Watson has stated that he "respects the people enormously who do it, believing that it's the most direct and quick way to achieve their ends."[293]

Some vegans also embrace the philosophy of anti-natalism, as they see the two as complementary in terms of "harm reduction" to animals and the environment.[309]

Exploitation concerns

The Vegan Society has written, "by extension, [veganism] promotes the development and use of animal-free alternatives for the benefit of humans."[310] Many ethical vegans and vegan organizations cite the poor working conditions of slaughterhouse workers as a reason to reject animal products.[311] The first vegan activist, Donald Watson, has stated, "If these butchers and vivisectors weren't there, could we perform the acts that they are doing? And, if we couldn't, we have no right to expect them to do it on our behalf. Full stop! That simply compounds the issue. It means that we're not just exploiting animals; we're exploiting human beings."[293]

Environmental veganism

According to a 2006 United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization report, Livestock's Long Shadow, around 26% of the planet's terrestrial surface is devoted to livestock grazing.[313] The UN report also concluded that livestock farming (mostly of cows, chickens and pigs) affects the air, land, soil, water, biodiversity and climate change.[314] Livestock consumed 1,174 million tonnes of food in 2002—including 7.6 million tonnes of fishmeal and 670 million tonnes of cereals, one-third of the global cereal harvest.[315] A 2017 study published in the journal Carbon Balance and Management found animal agriculture's global methane emissions are 11% higher than previous estimates based on data from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.[316][317] A 2018 study found that global adoption of plant-based diets would reduce agricultural land use by 76% (3.1 billion hectares, an area the size of Africa) and cut total global greenhouse gas emissions by 28% (half of this emissions reduction came from avoided emissions from animal production including methane and nitrous oxide, and half came from trees re-growing on abandoned farmland which remove carbon dioxide from the air),[318][319] although other research has questioned these results.[320]

Reduction of one's carbon footprint for various actions. A plant-based diet in this study referred to a lacto-ovo vegetarian diet. Vegan diets are known to have lower carbon footprints.[321]

A 2010 UN report, Assessing the Environmental Impacts of Consumption and Production, argued that animal products "in general require more resources and cause higher emissions than plant-based alternatives".[322]:80 It proposed a move away from animal products to reduce environmental damage.[v][323] A 2007 Cornell University study concluded that vegetarian diets use the least land per capita, but require higher quality land than is needed to feed animals.[324] A 2015 study determined that significant biodiversity loss can be attributed to the growing demand for meat, which is a significant driver of deforestation and habitat destruction, with species-rich habitats being converted to agriculture for livestock production.[325][326][327] A 2017 study by the World Wildlife Fund found that 60% of biodiversity loss can be attributed to the vast scale of feed crop cultivation needed to rear tens of billions of farm animals, which puts an enormous strain on natural resources resulting in an extensive loss of lands and species.[328] Livestock make up 60% of the biomass of all mammals on earth, followed by humans (36%) and wild mammals (4%). As for birds, 70% are domesticated, such as poultry, whereas only 30% are wild.[329][330] In November 2017, 15,364 world scientists signed a warning to humanity calling for, among other things, "promoting dietary shifts towards mostly plant-based foods".[331] The 2019 IPBES Global Assessment Report on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services found that industrial agriculture and overfishing are the primary drivers of the extinction crisis, with the meat and dairy industries having a substantial impact.[332][333] On August 8, 2019, the IPCC released a summary of the 2019 special report which asserted that a shift towards plant-based diets would help to mitigate and adapt to climate change.[334]

Feminist veganism

One of the leading activists and scholars of feminist animal rights is Carol J. Adams. Her premier work, The Sexual Politics of Meat: A Feminist-Vegetarian Critical Theory (1990), sparked what was to become a movement in animal rights as she noted the relationship between feminism and meat consumption. Since the release of The Sexual Politics of Meat, Adams has published several other works including essays, books, and keynote addresses. In one of her speeches, "Why feminist-vegan now?"[335]—adapted from her original address at the "Minding Animals" conference in Newcastle, Australia (2009)—Adams states that "the idea that there was a connection between feminism and vegetarianism came to [her] in October 1974", illustrating that the concept of feminist veganism has been around for nearly half a century. Other authors have also paralleled Adams' ideas while expanding on them. Angella Duvnjak states in "Joining the Dots: Some Reflections on Feminist-Vegan Political Practice and Choice" that she was met with opposition to the connection of feminist and veganism ideals, although the connection seemed more than obvious to her and other scholars (2011).[336] Other scholars elaborate on the connections between feminism, such as Carrie Hamilton who makes the connection to sex workers and animal reproductive rights.[337] Many other scholars of feminist vegan philosophy continue to add to the arguments that Adams, Duvnjak, and Hamilton have brought forth.

Animal and human abuse parallels

Some of the main concepts of feminist veganism is that is the connection between the violence and oppression of animals. For example, Marjorie Spiegal compares the consumption or servitude of animals for human gain to slavery.[336] Animals are purchased from a breeder, used for personal gain—either for further breeding or manual labor—and then discarded, most frequently as food. This capitalist use of animals for personal gain has held strong, despite the work of animal rights activists and ecofriendly feminists.

Similar notions that suggest animals—like fish, for example—feel less pain are brought forth today as a justification for animal cruelty.[336] The feminist side of the argument states that there is no rationalization for treating animal lives with lesser reverence than human lives, even if the theory that animals are less capable of pain is verifiable.[citation needed]

Another connection between feminism and veganism is the parallel of violence against women or other minority members and the violence against animals. Animal rights activists closely relate animal cruelty to feminist issues. This connection is even further mirrored as animals that are used for breeding practices are compared to human trafficking victims and migrant sex workers.[337] Hamilton comments that violent "rapists sometimes exhibit behavior that seems to be patterned on the mutilation of animals" suggesting there is a trend between the violence towards rape victims and animal cruelty previously exhibited by the rapist.[337]

Capitalism and feminist veganism

Another way that feminist veganism relates to feminist thoughts is through the capitalist means of the production itself. Carol J. Adams mentions Barbara Noske talking about "meat eating as the ultimate capitalist product, because it takes so much to make the product, it uses up so many resources".[338] The capitalization of resources for meat production is argued to be better used for production of other food products that have a less detrimental impact on the environment.

Religious veganism

Streams within a number of religious traditions encourage veganism, sometimes on ethical or environmental grounds.  Scholars have especially noted the growth in the twenty-first century of Jewish veganism[339] and Jain veganism.[340] Some interpretations of Christian vegetarianism,[341] Hindu vegetarianism,[342] and Buddhist vegetarianism[343] also recommend or mandate a vegan diet.

Donald Watson argued, "If Jesus were alive today, he'd be an itinerant vegan propagandist instead of an itinerant preacher of those days, spreading the message of compassion, which, as I see it, is the only useful part of what religion has to offer and, sad as it seems, I doubt if we have to enroll our priest as a member of the Vegan Society."[293]

Prejudice against vegans


A study from Canadian psychologists showed that vegans get rated as negative as other minority groups. Vegans get rated more negative than vegetarians and men get rated more negative than women. People who eat vegan because of health reasons get rated better than those who eat vegan because of ethical reasons or for animal rights.[344]

A study with 300 participants looked into what happens if a person reminds those who eat meat that meat comes from animals. The study showed that this increased discomfort while eating meat and also led to a less negative judgement of vegans.[345]

These findings are consistent with vegans who feel discriminated by people who eat meat.[344] There are also meat-eaters who do not transition to a vegan diet because they fear to be stigmatized when becoming a vegan.[346]

These negative prejudices against vegans are sometimes termed vegaphobia.[347][348][349] Positive feelings regarding vegans also exist, however: Because of their diet, they may be rated as more virtuous. They may get rated less masculine but more principled.[350]


2011 a media analysis found that veganism and vegans are discredited in British media through ridicule, or as being difficult or impossible to maintain in practice. Vegans were variously stereotyped as ascetics, faddists, sentimentalists, or in some cases, hostile extremists. The study found that of 397 articles, 20% were neutral, approximately 5% were positive and 75% were negative.[351] In 2018, a British food editor lost his job because a message from him showed him talking about "killing vegans one by one".[352][353]

In social media, some vegans are also attacked for their choice to have only sexual relations to other vegans.[354]


Negative attitudes against vegans are largest in people who share conservative or right-wing ideology,[344][355] and in particular the alt-right ideology.[356] For right-wing adherents eating meat is not only a delight, but also a part of their attitude towards life. Thus, people who show that it's possible to not eat meat can be perceived a threat of their way of life.[357] A survey of about 1000 participants showed that vegans are perceived as a threat mainly by older and lower-educated people and convinced meat eaters.[349]

Having a view of life that is rooted in social dominance will also lead to rating vegans more negatively.[355]

Explanations are founded on what is sometimes called the meat paradox: many people who eat meat like to eat meat but do not like to harm animals. Vegans can contribute to those who eat meat being aware of this cognitive dissonance, which in turn will lead to discomfort in meat eaters and eventually interactions between vegans and meat eaters can become strained.[358][344]

One way to resolve this inner conflict and reduce dissonance is to maintain prejudice against vegans.[359]

Another reason for negative attitudes against vegans is, that meat eaters may feel judged by vegans for eating meat. Discrediting ethical vegans as do-gooders is then a way to invalidate the judgement of oneself.[360] These negative attitudes against vegans are higher when vegans are thought to think of themselves as morally superior.[360]

While there may be an inner conflict in meat eaters when it comes to the killing and eating of animals, this theory may not hold up to environmental reasons for not eating meat. Environmentalists may not see a conflict in eating meat because they see their individual environmental impact of meat consumption as low.[361]

Also, vegans are not always discredited for ideological reasons. Sometimes the reason may be that the person cannot share their food with them.[362]


photograph of circle-A and circle-V graffiti on wall
Vegan graffiti showing an enclosed V in Lisbon, Portugal.

Multiple symbols have been developed to represent veganism. Several are used on consumer packaging, including the Vegan Society trademark[153] and the Vegan Action logo,[151] to indicate products without animal-derived ingredients.[363][364] Various symbols may also be used by members of the vegan community to represent their identity and in the course of animal rights activism,[citation needed] such as a vegan flag.[365]

Economics of veganism

The documentary film Cowspiracy estimates that a vegan, over the course of one year, will save 1.5 million litres of water, 6,607 kg of grain, 1,022 square metres of forest cover, 3,322 kg of CO
, and 365 animal lives compared to the average U.S. diet.[366][scholarly source needed] According to a 2016 study, if everyone in the U.S. switched to a vegan diet, the country would save $208.2 billion in direct health-care savings, $40.5 billion in indirect health-care savings, $40.5 billion in environmental savings, and $289.1 billion in total savings by 2050. The study also found that if everybody in the world switched to a vegan diet, the global economy would save $684.4 billion in direct health-care savings, $382.6 billion in indirect health-care savings, $569.5 billion in environmental savings, and $1.63 trillion in total savings by 2050.[367]

In his 2015 book Doing Good BetterWilliam MacAskill stated:

Economists have worked out how, on average, a consumer affects the number of animal products supplied by declining to buy that product. They estimate that, on average, if you give up one egg, total production ultimately falls by 0.91 eggs; if you give up one gallon of milk, total production falls by 0.56 gallons. Other products are somewhere in between: economists estimate that if you give up one pound of beef, beef production falls by 0.68 pounds; if you give up one pound of pork, production ultimately falls by 0.74 pounds; if you give up one pound of chicken, production ultimately falls by 0.76 pounds.[368]


  1. ^ Other common but less frequent pronunciations recorded by the Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary and the Random House Dictionary are /ˈvɡən/VAY-gən and /ˈvɛən/ VEJ-ən.[1][2] The word was coined in Britain by Donald Watson, who preferred the pronunciation /ˈvɡən/ VEE-gən,[3] and the 1997 edition of the Random House Dictionary reported that this pronunciation was considered "especially British" and that /ˈvɛən/ VEJ-ən was the most frequent and only other common American pronunciation.[4]
  2. Jump up to:a b "[Al-Maʿarri's] diet was extremely frugal, consisting chiefly of lentils, with figs for sweet; and, very unusually for a Muslim, he was not only a vegetarian, but a vegan who abstained from meat, fish, dairy products, eggs, and honey, because he did not want to kill or hurt animals, or deprive them of their food."[5]
  3. ^ For veganism and animals as commodities:
    Helena Pedersen, Vasile Staescu (The Rise of Critical Animal Studies, 2014): "[W]e are vegan because we are ethically opposed to the notion that life (human or otherwise) can, or should, ever be rendered as a buyable or sellable commodity."[12]
    Gary Steiner (Animals and the Limits of Postmodernism, 2013): " ... ethical veganism, the principle that we ought as far as possible to eschew the use of animals as sources of food, labour, entertainment and the like ... [This means that animals] ... are entitled not to be eaten, used as forced field labor, experimented upon, killed for materials to make clothing and other commodities of use to human beings, or held captive as entertainment."[13]

    Gary Francione ("Animal Welfare, Happy Meat and Veganism as the Moral Baseline", 2012): "Ethical veganism is the personal rejection of the commodity status of nonhuman animals ..."[14]

  4. ^ Laura Wright (The Vegan Studies Project, 2015): "[The Vegan Society] definition simplifies the concept of veganism in that it assumes that all vegans choose to be vegan for ethical reasons, which may be the case for the majority, but there are other reasons, including health and religious mandates, people choose to be vegan. Veganism exists as a dietary and lifestyle choice with regard to what one consumes, but making this choice also constitutes participation in the identity category of 'vegan'."[15]
    Brenda Davis, Vesanto Melina (Becoming Vegan, 2013): "There are degrees of veganism. A pure vegetarian or dietary vegan is someone who consumes a vegan diet but doesn't lead a vegan lifestyle. Pure vegetarians may use animal products, support the use of animals in research, wear leather clothing, or have no objection to the exploitation of animals for entertainment. They are mostly motivated by personal health concerns rather than by ethical objections. Some may adopt a more vegan lifestyle as they are exposed to vegan philosophy."[16]
    Laura H. Kahn, Michael S. Bruner ("Politics on Your Plate", 2012): "A vegetarian is a person who abstains from eating NHA [non-human animal] flesh of any kind. A vegan goes further, abstaining from eating anything made from NHA. Thus, a vegan does not consume eggs and dairy foods. Going beyond dietary veganism, 'lifestyle' vegans also refrain from using leather, wool or any NHA-derived ingredient."[17]

    Vegetarian and vegan diets may be referred to as plant-based and vegan diets as entirely plant-based.[18]

  5. ^ Gary Francione (The Animal Rights Debate, 2010): "Although veganism may represent a matter of diet or lifestyle for some, ethical veganism is a profound moral and political commitment to abolition on the individual level and extends not only to matters of food but also to the wearing or using of animal products."[19]:62
    This terminology is controversial within the vegan community. While some vegan leaders, such as Karen Dawn, endorse efforts to avoid animal consumption for any reason; others, including Francione, believe that veganism must be part of an holistic ethical and political movement in order to support animal liberation. Accordingly, the latter group rejects the label "dietary vegan", referring instead to "strict vegetarians", "pure vegetarians", or followers of a "plant-based" diet.[20]
  6. ^ American Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (2009): "It is the position of the American Dietetic Association that appropriately planned vegetarian diets, including total vegetarian or vegan diets, are healthful, nutritionally adequate, and may provide health benefits in the prevention and treatment of certain diseases. Well-planned vegetarian diets are appropriate for individuals during all stages of the life cycle, including pregnancy, lactation, infancy, childhood, and adolescence, and for athletes."[22]
  7. ^ The Deutsche Gesellschaft für Ernährung, 2016: "The DGE does not recommend a vegan diet for pregnant women, lactating women, infants, children or adolescents."[28]
  8. ^ Winston J. Craig (The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2009): "Vegan diets are usually higher in dietary fiber, magnesium, folic acid, vitamins C and E, iron, and phytochemicals, and they tend to be lower in calories, saturated fat and cholesterol, long-chain n–3 (omega-3) fatty acids, vitamin D, calcium, zinc, and vitamin B-12. ... A vegan diet appears to be useful for increasing the intake of protective nutrients and phytochemicals and for minimizing the intake of dietary factors implicated in several chronic diseases."[31]
  9. ^ Fanny Kemble (Journal of a Residence on a Georgian Plantation in 1838–1839, 1839): "The sight and smell of raw meat are especially odious to me, and I have often thought that if I had had to be my own cook, I should inevitably become a vegetarian, probably, indeed, return entirely to my green and salad days."[45]

    Another early use was by the editor of The Healthian, a journal published by Alcott House, in April 1942: "To tell a man, who is in the stocks for a given fault, that he cannot be so confined for such an offence, is ridiculous enough; but not more so than to tell a healthy vegetarian that his diet is very uncongenial with the wants of his nature, and contrary to reason."[46]

  10. ^ In 1838 William Alcott, Amos's cousin, published Vegetable Diet: As Sanctioned by Medical Men and By Experience in All Ages (1838).[63] The word vegetarian appears in the second edition but not the first.
  11. ^ Mahatma Gandhi, address to the Vegetarian Society, 20 November 1931): "I feel especially honoured to find on my right, Mr. Henry Salt. It was Mr. Salt's book 'A Plea for Vegetarianism', which showed me why apart from a hereditary habit, and apart from my adherence to a vow administered to me by my mother, it was right to be a vegetarian. He showed me why it was a moral duty incumbent on vegetarians not to live upon fellow-animals. It is, therefore, a matter of additional pleasure to me that I find Mr. Salt in our midst."[65]
  12. ^ Plant-milk brands include Dean FoodsSilk soy milk and almond milk; Blue Diamond's Almond Breeze, Taste the Dream's Almond Dream, and Rice Dream; and Plamil Foods' Organic Soya and Alpro's Soya. Vegan ice-creams include Swedish Glace, Food Heaven, Tofutti, Turtle Mountain's So Delicious and Luna & Larry's Coconut Bliss.[202]
  13. ^ The RDA for B12 for adults (14+ years) is 2.4 micrograms (µg) a day, rising to 2.4 and 2.6 µg during pregnancy and lactation respectively. For infants and children, it is 0.4 µg for 0–6 months, 0.5 µg for 7–12 months, 0.9 µg for 1–3 years, 1.2 µg for 4–8 years, and 1.8 µg for 9–13 years.[222]
  14. ^ Reed Mangels (2006): "Vitamin B12 is needed for cell division and blood formation. Neither plants nor animals make vitamin B12. Bacteria are responsible for producing vitamin B12. Animals get their vitamin B12 from eating foods contaminated with vitamin B12 or from the bacteria present in their rumen and then the animal can become a source of vitamin B12 itself. Plant foods do not contain vitamin B12 except when they are contaminated by microorganisms or have vitamin B12 added to them. Thus, vegans need to look to fortified foods or supplements to get vitamin B12 in their diet."[224]
  15. ^ Roman Pawlak, et al. (Nutrition Reviews, 2013): "The main finding of this review is that vegetarians develop B12 depletion or deficiency regardless of demographic characteristics, place of residency, age, or type of vegetarian diet. Vegetarians should thus take preventive measures to ensure adequate intake of this vitamin, including regular consumption of supplements containing B12."[227]
  16. ^ Other sources of B12 cited are miso, edible seaweeds (aramewakame and kombu), spirulina and rainwater. Barley malt syrupshiitake mushroomsparsley, and sourdough bread have also been referenced, but may be sources of inactive B12.[232]
  17. ^ Red Star developed Vegetarian Support Formula as a nutritional supplement especially for vegetarians and vegans ... Two teaspoons of flakes or one teaspoon of powdered Vegetarian Support Formula provides one microgram of Vitamin B12 ..."[234]
  18. ^ Appleby et al. (European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2007): "We observed similar fracture rates among meat eaters, fish eaters and vegetarians. A 30% higher fracture rate among vegans compared with meat eaters was halved in magnitude by adjustment for energy and calcium intake and disappeared altogether when the analysis was restricted to subjects who consumed at least 525 mg/day calcium, a quantity equal to the UK EAR. ... In conclusion, fracture risk was similar for meat eaters, fish eaters and vegetarians in this study. The higher fracture risk among vegans appeared to be a consequence of their considerably lower mean calcium intake. Vegans, who do not consume dairy products, a major source of calcium in most diets, should ensure that they obtain adequate calcium from suitable sources such as almonds, sesame seeds, tahini (sesame paste), calcium-set tofu, calcium-fortified drinks and low-oxalate leafy green vegetables such as kale ..."[243]

    National Institutes of Health, 2013: "In the Oxford cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition, bone fracture risk was similar in meat eaters, fish eaters and vegetarians, but higher in vegans, likely due to their lower mean calcium intake."[244]

  19. ^ Annabelle M. Smith (International Journal of Nursing Practice, 2006): "The findings gathered consistently support the hypothesis that vegans do have lower bone mineral density than their non-vegan counterparts. However, the evidence regarding calcium, Vitamin D and fracture incidence is inconclusive."[247]
  20. ^ Journal of the American Dietetic Association (2009): "Key nutrients in pregnancy include vitamin B-12, vitamin D, iron, and folate whereas key nutrients in lactation include vitamin B-12, vitamin D, calcium, and zinc. Diets of pregnant and lactating vegetarians should contain reliable sources of vitamin B-12 daily. Based on recommendations for pregnancy and lactation, if there is concern about vitamin D synthesis because of limited sunlight exposure, skin tone, season, or sunscreen use, pregnant and lactating women should use vitamin D supplements or vitamin D–fortified foods. No studies included in the evidence-analysis examined vitamin D status during vegetarian pregnancy. Iron supplements may be needed to prevent or treat iron-deficiency anemia, which is common in pregnancy. Women capable of becoming pregnant as well as women in the periconceptional period are advised to consume 400 μg folate daily from supplements, fortified foods, or both. Zinc and calcium needs can be met through food or supplement sources as identified in earlier sections on these nutrients."[22]
  21. ^ Gary Francione (2009): "We all believe it's wrong to inflict unnecessary suffering and death on animals. ... So now the next question becomes 'what do we mean by necessity?' Well, whatever it means, whatever abstract meaning it has, if it has any meaning whatsoever, its minimal meaning has to be that it's wrong to inflict suffering and death on animals for reasons of pleasure, amusement or convenience ... Problem is 99.9999999 percent of our animal use can only be justified by reasons of pleasure, amusement or convenience."[295]
  22. ^ United Nations Environment Programme (2010): "Impacts from agriculture are expected to increase substantially due to population growth, increasing consumption of animal products. Unlike fossil fuels, it is difficult to look for alternatives: people have to eat. A substantial reduction of impacts would only be possible with a substantial worldwide diet change, away from animal products."[322]:82


  1. ^ "Definition of VEGANISM"www.merriam-webster.com.
  2. ^ "the definition of veganism"www.dictionary.com.
  3. ^ "Vegetarians in Paradise/Donald Watson/Vegan Society/24 Carrot Vegetarian Award"www.vegparadise.com.
  4. ^ "Meaning of vegan – Infoplease"InfoPlease.
  5. ^ Geert Jan van Gelder, Gregor Schoeler, "Introduction", in Abu l-Ala al-Maarri, The Epistle of Forgiveness Or A Pardon to Enter the Garden, Volume 2, New York and London: New York University Press, 2016, xxvii.
  6. ^ Records of Buckinghamshire, Volume 3, BPC Letterpress, 1870, 68.
  7. ^ Karen Iacobbo, Michael Iacobbo, Vegetarian America: A History, Greenwood Publishing Group, 2004, 3.
  8. Jump up to:a b J. E. M. Latham, Search for a New Eden, Madison: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 1999, 168.
  9. ^ Richard Francis, Fruitlands: The Alcott Family and their Search for Utopia, New Haven: Yale University Press, 2010, 11.
  10. Jump up to:a b c d Watson, Donald (15 December 2002). "Interview with Donald Watson" (PDF) (Transcript). Interviewed by George D. Rodger. The Vegan Society. Archived (PDF) from the original on 13 March 2018. Retrieved 13 March 2018.
    Watson, Donald (11 August 2004). "24 Carrot Award: Donald Watson"Vegetarians in Paradise (e-Zine). 6 (10). Interviewed by George D. Rodger. Archived from the original on 14 March 2018. Retrieved 13 March 2018I invited my early readers to suggest a more concise word to replace 'non-dairy vegetarian.' Some bizarre suggestions were made like 'dairyban, vitan, benevore, sanivore, beaumangeur', et cetera. I settled for my own word, 'vegan', containing the first three and last two letters of 'vegetarian'—'the beginning and end of vegetarian.' The word was accepted by the Oxford English Dictionary and no one has tried to improve it.
  11. Jump up to:a b c Donald Watson, "The Early History of the Vegan Movement", The Vegan, Autumn 1965, 5–7; Donald Watson, Vegan News, first issue, November 1944.
  12. ^ Pedersen, Helena; Staescu, Vasile (2014). "Conclusion: Future Directions for Critical Animal Studies". In Taylor, Nik; Twine, Richard (eds.). The Rise of Critical Animal Studies: From the Margins to the Centre. Routledge. pp. 262–276. ISBN 978-1-135-10087-2.
  13. ^ Gary Steiner, Animals and the Limits of Postmodernism, Columbia University Press, 2013, 206.
  14. ^ Gary Francione, "Animal Welfare, Happy Meat and Veganism as the Moral Baseline", in David M. KaplanThe Philosophy of Food, University of California Press, 2012 (169–189) 182.
  15. ^ Laura WrightThe Vegan Studies Project: Food, Animals, and Gender in the Age of Terror, University of Georgia Press, 2015, 2.
  16. ^ Brenda Davis, Vesanto Melina, Becoming Vegan: Express Edition, Summertown: Book Publishing Company, 2013, 3.
  17. ^ Laura H. Kahn, Michael S. Bruner, "Politics on Your Plate: Building and Burning Bridges across Organics, Vegetarian, and Vegan Discourse", in Joshua Frye (ed.), The Rhetoric of Food: Discourse, Materiality, and Power, Routledge, 2012, 46.
  18. ^ Tuso, P. J.; Ismail, M. H.; Ha, B. P.; Bartolotto, C (2013). "Nutritional Update for Physicians: Plant-Based Diets"The Permanente Journal17 (2): 61–66. doi:10.7812/TPP/12-085PMC 3662288PMID 23704846.
  19. Jump up to:a b c d e Francione, Gary LawrenceGarner, Robert (2010). "The Abolition of Animal Exploitation"The Animal Rights Debate: Abolition Or Regulation?(Paperback). Critical Perspectives on Animals: Theory, Culture, Science, and Law. New York: Columbia University Press (published 26 October 2010). ISBN 9780231149556OCLC 705765194Archived from the original on 20 April 2018. Retrieved 20 April 2018.
  20. ^ Greenebaum, Jessica (29 April 2015). "Veganism, Identity and the Quest for Authenticity". Food, Culture & Society15 (1): 129–144. doi:10.2752/175174412x13190510222101.
  21. Jump up to:a b Watson, Paul (21 September 2010). "Sea Shepherd's Paul Watson: 'You don't watch whales die and hold signs and do nothing'"The Guardian(Interview). Interviewed by Michael Shapiro. Archived from the original on 1 March 2018. Retrieved 1 March 2018Stop eating the ocean. Don't eat anything out of the ocean – there is no such thing as a sustainable fishery. If people eat meat, make sure it's organic and isn't contributing to the destruction of the ocean because 40 percent of all the fish that's caught out of the ocean is fed to livestock – chickens on factory farms are fed fish meal. And be cognizant of the fact that if the oceans die, we die. Therefore our ultimate responsibility is to protect biodiversity in our world's oceans.

    Matthew Cole, "Veganism", in Margaret Puskar-Pasewicz (ed.), Cultural Encyclopedia of Vegetarianism, ABC-Clio, 2010 (239–241), 241.

  22. Jump up to:a b c d e Craig, WJ; Mangels, AR; American Dietetic, Association. (July 2009). "Position of the American Dietetic Association: Vegetarian Diets". Journal of the American Dietetic Association109 (7): 1266–1282. doi:10.1016/j.jada.2009.05.027PMID 19562864.
  23. ^ "Healthy Eating Guidelines for Vegans"Dietitians of Canada. 27 November 2014. Archived from the original on 24 February 2018. Retrieved 24 February 2018A healthy vegan diet can meet all your nutrient needs at any stage of life including when you are pregnant, breastfeeding or for older adults.
  24. Jump up to:a b "Government recognises vegan diet as viable option for all Australians"(Press release). Vegan Australia. 12 July 2013. Archived from the original on 22 September 2013 – via News International.
  25. ^ "Eating for Healthy Vegetarians" (PDF). The New Zealand Ministry of Health. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 January 2019.
  26. Jump up to:a b "Becoming a vegetarian". Harvard Medical School. Archived from the original on 19 May 2019.
  27. ^ Garton, Lynne (October 2017). "Food Fact Sheet (Vegetarian Diets)"(PDF)British Dietetic AssociationArchived (PDF) from the original on 24 February 2018. Retrieved 24 February 2018Well-planned vegetarian diets are appropriate for all stages of life and have many benefits.
  28. Jump up to:a b c d Richter M, Boeing H, Grünewald-Funk D, Heseker H, Kroke A, Leschik-Bonnet E, Oberritter H, Strohm D, Watzl B for the German Nutrition Society (DGE) (12 April 2016). "Vegan diet. Position of the German Nutrition Society (DGE)" (PDF)Ernahrungs Umschau63 (4): 92–102. Erratum in: 63(05): M262. doi:10.4455/eu.2016.021.
  29. Jump up to:a b Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle; Harris, Metria (2 August 2014). "Key Elements of Plant-Based Diets Associated with Reduced Risk of Metabolic Syndrome". Current Diabetes Reports14 (9): 524. doi:10.1007/s11892-014-0524-yPMID 25084991.
  30. Jump up to:a b Huang, Ru-Yi; Huang, Chuan-Chin; Hu, Frank B.; Chavarro, Jorge E. (3 July 2015). "Vegetarian Diets and Weight Reduction: a Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials"Journal of General Internal Medicine31 (1): 109–116. doi:10.1007/s11606-015-3390-7PMC 4699995PMID 26138004.
  31. Jump up to:a b c d e f Craig, Winston J (May 2009). "Health effects of vegan diets"The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition89 (5): 1627S–1633S. doi:10.3945/ajcn.2009.26736NPMID 19279075However, eliminating all animal products from the diet increases the risk of certain nutritional deficiencies. 
  32. Jump up to:a b Di Genova, Tanya; Guyda, Harvey (March 2007). "Infants and children consuming atypical diets: Vegetarianism and macrobiotics"Paediatrics & Child Health12 (3): 185–188. doi:10.1093/pch/12.3.185PMC 2528709PMID 19030357.
  33. Jump up to:a b c d Rizzo G, Laganà AS, Rapisarda AM, La Ferrera GM, Buscema M, Rossetti P, et al. (2016). "Vitamin B12 among Vegetarians: Status, Assessment and Supplementation"Nutrients (Review). 8 (12): 767. doi:10.3390/nu8120767PMC 5188422PMID 27916823.
  34. Jump up to:a b c Melina V, Craig W, Levin S (2016). "Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: Vegetarian Diets"J Acad Nutr Diet116 (12): 1970–1980. doi:10.1016/j.jand.2016.09.025PMID 27886704. Archived from the original on 8 July 2019. Retrieved 29 July 2019Fermented foods (such as tempeh), nori, spirulina, chlorella algae, and unfortified nutritional yeast cannot be relied upon as adequate or practical sources of B-12.39,40 Vegans must regularly consume reliable sources— meaning B-12 fortified foods or B-12 containing supplements—or they could become deficient, as shown in case studies of vegan infants, children, and adults.
  35. Jump up to:a b Hannibal, L; Lysne, V; Bjørke-Monsen, A. L.; Behringer, S; Grünert, S. C.; Spiekerkoetter, U; Jacobsen, D. W.; Blom, H. J. (2016). "Biomarkers and Algorithms for the Diagnosis of Vitamin B12 Deficiency"Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences3: 27. doi:10.3389/fmolb.2016.00027PMC 4921487PMID 27446930.
  36. Jump up to:a b c d e Gille, D; Schmid, A (February 2015). "Vitamin B12 in meat and dairy products". Nutrition Reviews (Review). 73 (2): 106–15. doi:10.1093/nutrit/nuu011PMID 26024497.
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  38. ^ Watson, Donald (February 1945). "Issue No. 2"The Vegan News. Retrieved 13 June 2019.
  39. ^ Leslie Cross, "Veganism Defined"The Vegetarian World Forum, 5(1), Spring 1951.
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    Nijjar, Raman (4 June 2011). "From pro athletes to CEOs and doughnut cravers, the rise of the vegan diet"CBC NewsArchived from the original on 1 March 2018. Retrieved 1 March 2018.
    Molloy, Antonia (31 December 2013). "No meat, no dairy, no problem: is 2014 the year vegans become mainstream?"The IndependentArchived from the original on 22 March 2018. Retrieved 22 March 2018.
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    Crawford, Elizabeth (17 March 2015). "Vegan is going mainstream, trend data suggests"FoodNavigator-USAWilliam Reed Business MediaArchivedfrom the original on 14 April 2018. Retrieved 13 April 2018.
    Oberst, Lindsay (18 January 2018). "Why the Global Rise in Vegan and Plant-Based Eating Isn't A Fad (600% Increase in U.S. Vegans + Other Astounding Stats)". Future of Food. Food Revolution NetworkArchived from the original on 14 April 2018. Retrieved 13 April 2018.
    Jones-Evans, Dylan (24 January 2018). "The rise and rise of veganism and a global market worth billions"WalesOnlineMedia WalesArchived from the original on 14 April 2018. Retrieved 13 April 2018.
  42. ^ Rod Preece, Sins of the Flesh: A History of Ethical Vegetarian Thought, Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press, 2008, 12.
  43. ^ "Definition of VEGETABLE"www.merriam-webster.com.
  44. ^ Davis, John (1 June 2011). "The Vegetus Myth"VegSourceArchivedfrom the original on 18 March 2018. Retrieved 18 March 2018Vegetarian can equally be seen as derived from the late Latin 'vegetabile' – meaning plant – as in Regnum Vegetabile / Plant Kingdom. Hence vegetable, vegetation – and vegetarian. Though others suggest that 'vegetable' itself is derived from 'vegetus'. But it's very unlikely that the originators went through all that either – they really did just join 'vegetable+arian', as the dictionaries have said all along.
  45. ^ Fanny Kemble, Journal of a Residence on a Georgian Plantation in 1838–1839, Harper and Brothers, New York, 1863, 197–198.
  46. ^ The Healthian, 1(5), April 1842, 34–35.
    Davis, John. "History of Vegetarianism: Extracts from some journals 1842–48 – the earliest known uses of the word 'vegetarian'"International Vegetarian UnionArchived from the original on 18 March 2018. Retrieved 18 March2018.
    Davis, John. "History of Vegetarianism: Extracts from some journals 1842–48 – the earliest known uses of the word 'vegetarian' (Appendix 2 – The 1839 journal of Fanny Kemble)". International Vegetarian Union. Archived from the original on 18 March 2018. Retrieved 18 March 2018.

    John Davis, "Prototype Vegans", The Vegan, Winter 2010, 22–23 (also here).

  47. ^ Bajpai, Shiva (2011). The History of India – From Ancient to Modern Times. Himalayan Academy Publications (Hawaii, USA). ISBN 978-1-934145-38-8.
  48. ^ Spencer, Colin (1996). The Heretic's Feast: A History of Vegetarianism. Fourth Estate Classic House. pp. 33–68, 69–84. ISBN 978-0874517606.
  49. ^ Tähtinen, Unto. Ahimsa: Non-violence in Indian tradition. London: [1976], Rider and Company (1976).
  50. ^ Singh, Upinder (2008). A History of Ancient and Early medieval India : from the Stone Age to the 12th century. New Delhi: Pearson Education. p. 137. ISBN 9788131711200.
  51. Jump up to:a b Dombrowski, Daniel A. (January 1984). "Vegetarianism and the Argument from Marginal Cases in Porphyry". Journal of the History of Ideas45 (1): 141–143. doi:10.2307/2709335JSTOR 2709335.

    Daniel A. Dombrowski, The Philosophy of Vegetarianism, University of Massachusetts Press, 1984, 2.

  52. ^ For Thiruvalluvar, see G. U. Pope, "Thirukkural English Translation and Commentary", W.H. Allen, & Co, 1886, 160.
  53. ^ Kahn, Charles H. (2001). Pythagoras and the Pythagoreans: A Brief History. Indianapolis, Indiana and Cambridge, England: Hackett Publishing Company. p. 9. ISBN 978-0-87220-575-8.
  54. ^ Cornelli, Gabriele; McKirahan, Richard (2013). In Search of Pythagoreanism: Pythagoreanism as an Historiographical Category. Berlin, Germany: Walter de Gruyter. p. 168. ISBN 978-3-11-030650-7.
  55. Jump up to:a b c d Zhmud, Leonid (2012). Pythagoras and the Early Pythagoreans. Translated by Windle, Kevin; Ireland, Rosh. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. pp. 200, 235. ISBN 978-0-19-928931-8.
  56. ^ Margoliouth, D. S. (15 March 2011). "Art. XI.—Abu'l-'Alā al- Ma'arrī's Correspondence on Vegetarianism"Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain & Ireland34 (2): 289–332. doi:10.1017/s0035869x0002921xJSTOR 25208409.
  57. ^ James Gregory, Of Victorians and Vegetarians, I. B. Tauris, 2007.
  58. Jump up to:a b "International Health Exhibition", The Medical Times and Gazette, 24 May 1884, 712.
  59. ^ James C. Whorton, Crusaders for Fitness: The History of American Health Reformers, Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2014, 69–70: "Word of these cures of pimples, consumption, and virtually all ailments in between was widely distributed by his several publications ..."

    Percy Bysshe ShelleyA Vindication of Natural Diet, London: F. Pitman, 1884 [1813]; William Lambe, Joel Shew, Water and Vegetable Diet, New York: Fowler's and Wells, 1854 [London, 1815].

  60. ^ Lambe 1854, 55, 94.
  61. ^ Andrew F. Smith, Eating History, New York: Columbia University Press, 2013, 29–35 (33 for popularity); Whorton 2014, 38ff.
  62. ^ Hart 1995, 14; Francis, Fruitlands: The Alcott Family and their Search for Utopia, 2010.
  63. ^ William A. Alcott, Vegetable Diet: As Sanctioned by Medical Men and By Experience in All Ages, Boston: Marsh, Capen & Lyon, 1838; Vegetable Diet, New York: Fowlers and Wells, 1851.
  64. ^ Gregory 2007, 22.
  65. Jump up to:a b Gandhi, Mahatma (20 November 1931). "The Moral Basis of Vegetarianism"EVU News (Speech). Vol. 1998 no. 1. London, England (published 1998). pp. 11–14. Archived from the original on 10 March 2018. Retrieved 9 March 2018 – via International Vegetarian Union and London Vegetarian Society.
  66. ^ Axon, William E. A. (December 1893). "A Forerunner of the Vegetarian Society"Vegetarian Messenger. Manchester, England: Vegetarian Society. pp. 453–55. Archived from the original on 24 February 2018. Retrieved 24 February 2018 – via International Vegetarian Union.
  67. ^ Latham, Jackie (September 1999). "The political and the personal: the radicalism of Sophia Chichester and Georgiana Fletcher Welch"Women's History Review8 (3): 469–487. doi:10.1080/09612029900200216PMID 22619793.
  68. ^ Grumett, David; Muers, Rachel (2010). Theology on the Menu: Asceticism, Meat and Christian Diet. Routledge. p. 64. ISBN 978-1-135-18832-0.
  69. ^ "History of Vegetarianism: The Origin of Some Words", International Vegetarian Union, 6 April 2010.
  70. ^ Stephens, Henry Salt (1886). "5: Sir Henry Thompson on "Diet."". A Plea for Vegetarianism and Other Essays . p. 57.
  71. Jump up to:a b Smith, Andrew F. (2015). Savoring Gotham: A Food Lover's Companion to New York CityOxford University Press. p. 617. ISBN 978-0-19-939702-0
  72. ^ Rupert Wheldon, No Animal Food, New York and New Jersey: Health Culture Co., 1910.[page needed]
  73. Jump up to:a b Leneman, Leah (1999). "No Animal Food: The Road to Veganism in Britain, 1909-1944". Society & Animals7 (3): 219–228. doi:10.1163/156853099X00095.
  74. ^ Wolpert, Stanley (2002). Gandhi's Passion: The Life and Legacy of Mahatma Gandhi. Oxford University Press. pp. 21–22, 161. ISBN 978-0-19-515634-8.
  75. ^ "11th IVU World Vegetarian Congress 1947"Stonehouse, GloucestershireInternational Vegetarian Union.
  76. ^ Lowbridge, Caroline (30 December 2017). "Veganism: How a maligned movement went mainstream"BBC NewsArchived from the original on 14 March 2018. Retrieved 14 March 2018.
  77. ^ Donald Watson, Vegan News, February 1945, 2–3.
  78. Jump up to:a b Richard Farhall, "The First Fifty Years: 1944–1994", iii (full names of members on following pages), published with The Vegan, 10(3), Autumn 1994, between pp. 12 and 13.
  79. ^ "World Vegan Month". The Vegan Society. Archived from the original on 14 March 2018. Retrieved 14 March 2018Every November we celebrate World Vegan Day and World Vegan Month, as well as the formation of The Vegan Society.
  80. ^ The Vegan, 1(5), November 1945; for 500, The Vegan, 10(3), Autumn 1994, iv.
  81. ^ For an example of the vegan trade list, The Vegan, 2(2), Summer 1946, 6–7.
  82. ^ Joanne StepaniakThe Vegan Sourcebook, McGraw Hill Professional, 2000, 5The Vegan, Autumn 1949, 22.
  83. Jump up to:a b Cole, Matthew (2014). "'The greatest cause on earth': The historical formation of veganism as an ethical practice". In Taylor, Nik; Twine, Richard (eds.). The Rise of Critical Animal Studies: From the Margins to the Centre. Routledge. pp. 203–224. ISBN 978-1-135-10087-2.
  84. ^ Cross, Leslie (1951). "Veganism Defined"The Vegetarian World Forum5(1): 6–7.
  85. ^ Ling, Arthur (Autumn 1986). "The Milk of Human Kindness"Vegan Views(Interview). 37 (Autumn 1986). Interviewed by Harry Mather. Archived from the original on 14 March 2018. Retrieved 14 March 2018.
    "Arthur Ling, Plamil"Plamil FoodsArchived from the original on 14 March 2018. Retrieved 14 March 2018.
    "The Plantmilk Society", The Vegan, X(3), Winter 1956, 14–16.
  86. ^ Stepaniak 2000, 6–7; Linda Austin and Norm Hammond, Oceano, Arcadia Publishing, 2010, 39.
  87. Jump up to:a b Dinshah, Freya (2010). "American Vegan Society: 50 Years" (PDF)American Vegan. 2. Vol. 10 no. 1 (Summer 2010). Vineland, NJ: American Vegan Society. p. 31. ISSN 1536-3767. Archived from the original (PDF)on 22 July 2011. Retrieved 14 March 2018.
  88. ^ Stepaniak 2000, 6–7; Preece 2008, 323.
  89. ^ "History". American Vegan Society. Archived from the original on 27 August 2014. Retrieved 14 March 2018.
  90. ^ Stepaniak 2000, 3.
  91. ^ Iacobbo, Karen and Michael Iacobbo. "Chapter 9: Peace, Love, and Vegetarianism: The Counterculture of the 1960s and 1970s", In Vegetarian America: A History. Westport: Praeger, 2004.
  92. ^ Andrew F. Smith, Eating History, New York: Columbia University Press, 2013, 197; Wright 2015, 34.
  93. ^ Aubrey, Allison (22 September 2016). "If You Think Eating Is A Political Act, Say Thanks To Frances Moore Lappe"NPR.
  94. ^ Frances Moore LappéDiet for a Small Planet: How to Enjoy a Rich Protein Harvest by Getting Off the Top of the Food Chain, Friends of the Earth/Ballantine, 1971; Smith 2013, 197.
  95. ^ For health professionals' interest in vegetarian diets in the last quarter of the 20th century: Donna Maurer, Vegetarianism: Movement or Moment?, Temple University Press, 2002, 23; for Ornish and Barnard, 99–101.
    For McDougall: Karen Iacobbo, Michael Iacobbo, Vegetarians and Vegans in America Today, Greenwood Publishing Group, 2006, 75.

    For Ornish, Campbell, Esselstyn, Barnard, and Greger: Kathy FrestonVeganist, Weinstein Publishing, 2011. Ornish, from 21; Campbell, 41; Esselstyn, 57; Barnard, 73; Greger, 109.

  96. ^ For McDougall Plan: Iacobbo and Iacobbo 2006, 75; for Robbins: Wright 2015, 35, and Preece 2008, 327; for Ornish: Maurer 2002, 99–101.
  97. ^ Sabaté, Joan (September 2003). "The contribution of vegetarian diets to health and disease: a paradigm shift?"The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition78 (3): 502S–507S. doi:10.1093/ajcn/78.3.502SPMID 12936940.
  98. ^ American Dietetic Association; Dietitians of Canada (June 2003). "Position of the American Dietetic Association and Dietitians of Canada: Vegetarian diets". Journal of the American Dietetic Association103 (6): 748–765. doi:10.1053/jada.2003.50142PMID 12778049.
  99. ^ For Freedman and Barnouin: Wright 2015, 104; for Earthlings: Wright 2015, 149.
    For Campbell and Esselstyn: Gupta, Sanjay (25 August 2011). "Gupta: Becoming heart attack proof"CNNArchived from the original on 12 March 2018. Retrieved 12 March 2018.
    For Eating Animals: Yonan, Joe (22 November 2009). "Book Review: Eating Animals by Jonathan Safran Foer"The Washington PostArchived from the original on 12 March 2018. Retrieved 12 March 2018.

    For Esselystyn and Forks over Knives: Martin, David S. (25 November 2011). "The 'heart attack proof' diet?". CNN. Archived from the original on 12 March 2018. Retrieved 12 March 2018.

  100. ^ Haenfler, Ross (2006). Straight Edge: Hardcore Punk, Clean Living Youth, and Social Change. Rutgers University Press. pp. 53, 427–8. ISBN 978-0-8135-3851-8.
  101. ^ Tilbürger, Len; Kale, Chris P. (2014). 'Nailing Descartes to the Wall': animal rights, veganism and punk culture (Zine). Active Distribution. Archivedfrom the original on 12 March 2018. Retrieved 12 March 2018 – via The Anarchist Library.
  102. ^ Kuhn, Gabriel (2010). Sober Living for the Revolution: Hardcore Punk, Straight Edge, and Radical Politics. PM Press. p. 137. ISBN 978-1604860511. Retrieved 7 October 2017.
  103. ^ Sanna, Jacopo (20 September 2017). "The Sincere and Vibrant World of the Czech DIY Scene"BandcampArchived from the original on 12 March 2018. Retrieved 12 March 2018Every year, at the end of July, the small and grassy airport of Rokycany, a small Czech town a few miles east of Plzeň, fills with people for a gathering called Fluff Fest. Attendance is a summer ritual for many European fans of punk, hardcore, crust, and screamo. Featuring more than a hundred bands, tons of vegan food, a fanzine library, and various workshops, Fluff Fest has established itself as the main DIY hardcore punk event in Europe, growing every year since its inaugural edition in 2000.
  104. ^ Nick Pendergrast, "Environmental Concerns and the Mainstreaming of Veganism", in T. Raphaely (ed.), Impact of Meat Consumption on Health and Environmental Sustainability, IGI Global, 2015, 106.
  105. Jump up to:a b Hancox, Dan (1 April 2018). "The unstoppable rise of veganism: how a fringe movement went mainstream"The GuardianArchived from the original on 2 April 2018. Retrieved 2 April 2018.
  106. ^ Parker, John. "The year of the vegan"The Economist. Retrieved 19 February 2019.
  107. ^ "European Parliament legislative resolution of 16 June 2010", European Parliament: "The term 'vegan' shall not be applied to foods that are, or are made from or with the aid of, animals or animal products, including products from living animals."
  108. ^ Rynn Berry, "Veganism", The Oxford Companion to American Food and Drink, Oxford University Press, 2007, 604–605
  109. Jump up to:a b Burt, Kate (18 May 2012). "Is this the end of meat?"The IndependentArchived from the original on 12 March 2018. Retrieved 12 March 2018.
  110. Jump up to:a b Shah, Allie (8 January 2016). "Nation's first vegan butcher shop to open in Minneapolis Jan. 23"Star TribuneArchived from the original on 13 March 2018. Retrieved 12 March 2018The Herbivorous Butcher is scheduled to open on Jan. 23 [2016] in northeast Minneapolis. [...] The opening of a vegan butcher shop is yet another sign of the rise of fake meat in American diets. Since 2012, sales of plant-based meat alternatives have grown 8 percent, to $553 million annually, according to the market research firm, Mintel.
  111. ^ Walraven, Michel (14 September 2011). "Vegetarian butchers make a killing"Radio Netherlands Worldwide. Archived from the original on 4 April 2014. Retrieved 12 March 2018The first Vegetarian Butcher shop opened its doors in October 2010 in The Hague. Now, less than a year later, there are 30 spread all over the country. The display counter of these shops challenges even a staunchly carnivorous stomach not to rumble; the fake meat products are almost indistinguishable from the real thing.
  112. ^ Locker, Melissa (7 January 2016). "A Vegan 'Butcher Shop' Is Opening in Minnesota"TIMEArchived from the original on 13 March 2018. Retrieved 12 March 2018.
    Gajanan, Mahita (29 January 2016). "The Herbivorous Butcher: sausage and steak – but hold the slaughter"The GuardianArchived from the original on 13 March 2018. Retrieved 12 March 2018The Walches soon took their products on the road, selling them at farmers’ markets and breweries across the midwest, before returning to Minneapolis and opening the Herbivorous Butcher on 23 January [2016]. More than 5,000 patrons visited the shop on its opening weekend.
  113. ^ Adele Peters (18 September 2019). "Think fake burgers are just for vegetarians? 95% of Impossible Foods' customers are meat eaters"Fast Company. Retrieved 25 November 2019Since 2017, more than 12,500 chain restaurant locations have begun offering Beyond Meat and Impossible Foods products. Carl's Jr. outlets offer Beyond Burgers. Burger King outlets begin serving Impossible Whoppers. 37% The amount plant-based meat sales in the U.S. grew in the past two years.
  114. ^ Povich, Elaine S. (30 September 2019). "Vegan School Lunches Expand Despite Opposition From Meat Industry"Stateline. Retrieved 18 February2020.
  115. ^ "US sales of dairy milk turn sour as non-dairy milk sales grow 9% in 2015"Mintel. April 2016. Archived from the original on 26 January 2018. Retrieved 12 March 2018The continued popularity of non-dairy milk is troubling for the dairy milk category with Mintel research revealing that half (49 percent) of Americans consume non-dairy milk, including 68 percent of parents and 54 percent of children under age 18. What's more, seven in 10 (69 percent) consumers agree that non-dairy milk is healthy for kids compared to 62 percent who agree that dairy milk is healthy for kids. [...] While an overwhelming majority of Americans consume dairy milk (91 percent), it is most commonly used as an addition to other food (69 percent), such as cereal, or as an ingredient (61 percent). Just 57 percent of consumers drink dairy milk by itself.
  116. ^ Khomami, Nadia (8 February 2015). "From Beyoncé to the Baftas, vegan culture gets star status"The GuardianArchived from the original on 13 March 2018. Retrieved 12 March 2018In 2012 there were an estimated 150,000 vegans in the UK, a number thought to have increased dramatically. Mintel's 2014 report on the market for dairy drinks, milk and cream, showed the non-dairy market jumping from 36m litres in 2011 to 92m litres in 2013, an increase of 155%. Plant-based, non-dairy foods are worth £150.6m a year and sales of soya-based alternatives to yoghurt are rising by 8% year on year.
  117. ^ Wandel, Hannah (10 March 2011). Witkop, Nathan (ed.). "Europe's first vegan supermarket opens in Dortmund"Deutsche Welle. Archived from the original on 27 January 2018. Retrieved 12 March 2018.
  118. ^ Mesure, Susie (8 December 2013). "Veganism 2.0: Let them eat kale"The IndependentArchived from the original on 13 March 2018. Retrieved 12 March 2018One further example of how plant-based diets are becoming mainstream will arrive in Britain next year, when a German-owned chain of vegan supermarkets opens its first outlet in London. Veganz, which is a European first in offering a full range of vegan grocery products, opened its first store in Berlin in 2011. It is expanding fast and aims to have 21 outlets across Europe by the end of 2015.
  119. Jump up to:a b c Moon, Louise (28 October 2017). "Inside Hong Kong's growing appetite for veganism". Hong Kong (Health & Environment). South China Morning PostAlibaba GroupArchived from the original on 10 April 2018. Retrieved 10 April 2018In contrast, Hong Kong residents in 2015 consumed the highest amount of meat and seafood in the world, at 140 kg per capita, a study by global market research company Euromonitor found. Yet in the five years from 2015 to 2020, China's vegan market is expected to rise by more than 17 per cent – marking the fastest growth rate internationally in that period and offering proof the trend has filtered into the region in recent years.
  120. Jump up to:a b c d White, Victoria (24 May 2016). "Euromonitor launches new Ethical Labels database"New Food. Russell Publishing. Archived from the original on 12 April 2018. Retrieved 12 April 2018The top three fastest growing vegan markets between 2015 and 2020 are China at 17.2 percent, United Arab Emirates at 10.6 percent, and Australia at 9.6 percent.
    "Sales growth of the vegan market between 2015 and 2020 worldwide, by country". Euromonitor International. May 2016. Archived from the original on 12 April 2018. Retrieved 12 April 2018 – via StatistaAccording to the report, China was projected to be the fastest growing market for vegan products between 2015 and 2020, with a growth rate of 17.2 percent. As of 2016, Asia Pacific held the largest share of vegan consumers globally, with approximately nine percent of people following a vegan diet in this area. [...] China, the United Arab Emirates and Australia were forecast to be the fastest growing markets for vegan products between 2015 and 2020. Australia's vegan market was projected to have a growth rate of 9.6 percent during the period considered.
  121. Jump up to:a b Cormack, Lucy (4 June 2016). "Australia is the third-fastest growing vegan market in the world"The Sydney Morning HeraldFairfax MediaArchivedfrom the original on 12 April 2018. Retrieved 12 April 2018The Brewers are an example of the increasing move towards veganism in Australia, now the third-fastest growing vegan market in the world, after the United Arab Emirates and China. Data from market researcher Euromonitor International has shown Australia's packaged vegan food market is currently worth almost $136 million, set to reach $215 million by 2020.
  122. ^ Guttman, Amy (4 October 2013). "Meat-Drenched Oktoberfest Warms To Vegans". The Salt. NPR. Archived from the original on 13 March 2018. Retrieved 13 March 2018The culinary cornerstones of the Munich festival, which runs this year from Sept. 21 to Oct. 6, include roast pork, ham hock, and weisswurst—a white sausage that complements the 40 different types of local beer. But this year, breaking with a 200-year-old tradition, Oktoberfest is catering to vegans. Claudia Bauer of the Munich City Council, which organizes the festival, says the move is a sign of the times.
  123. ^ Reese, Jacy (6 November 2018). The End of Animal Farming: How Scientists, Entrepreneurs, and Activists are Building an Animal-Free Food System. Boston: Beacon PressISBN 9780807039878.
  124. ^ Reese, Jacy (16 November 2018). "There's no such thing as humane meat or eggs. Stop kidding yourself"The Guardian. Retrieved 17 May 2020.
  125. ^ Riederer, Rachel (13 February 2019). "The Future of Meat Is Vegan"The New Republic. Retrieved 17 May 2020.
  126. ^ Banis, Davide (27 November 2018). "New Book Draws Detailed Roadmap Of How We Can End Animal Farming"Forbes. Retrieved 17 May 2020.
  127. ^ "Why 'Vegan' Is THE Word of 2016". PETA Australia. 12 April 2016. Archived from the original on 24 February 2018. Retrieved 24 February2018.
  128. ^ Barbara Reiter, Anita Kattinger, "Total Vegan"Kurier, 28 May 2013.
  129. ^ (in Dutch) "Minder vlees eten steeds meer ingeburgerd"Vilt, 16 February 2016.
  130. ^ "Most vegans, vegetarians in Canada are under 35: Survey".
  131. ^ Agrawal, Sutapa; Millett, Christopher J; Dhillon, Preet K; Subramanian, SV; Ebrahim, Shah (2014). "Type of vegetarian diet, obesity and diabetes in adult Indian population"Nutrition Journal13 (1): 89. doi:10.1186/1475-2891-13-89PMC 4168165PMID 25192735.
  132. ^ Sales, Ben (17 October 2014). "Israelis growing hungry for vegan diet". Tel Aviv: Jewish Telegraphic AgencyArchived from the original on 3 March 2018. Retrieved 3 March 2018 – via The Times of Israel.
    Avivi, Yuval (6 March 2014). "Is Tel Aviv's vegan craze here to stay?"Al-Monitor. Archived from the original on 1 September 2017. Retrieved 15 April2018Another poll, published by the Panels Institute in advance of the new season of the reality cooking show 'Master Chef' in January 2014 found that 8% of Israelis define themselves as vegetarians and 5% as vegans. In that same poll, 13% of the respondents said that they are considering adopting a vegan or vegetarian lifestyle in the near future, while almost 25% said that they had reduced their meat consumption in the last year.

    Cohen, Tova (21 July 2015). "In the land of milk and honey, Israelis turn vegan"Reuters. Tel Aviv. Archived from the original on 4 March 2018. Retrieved 4 March 2018A study prepared for the Globes newspaper and Israel's Channel Two found 5 percent of Israelis identify as vegan and 8 percent as vegetarian while 13 percent are weighing going vegan or vegetarian. In 2010 just 2.6 percent were vegetarian or vegan.

  133. ^ "Veganism in Israel (Society & Culture: Veganism)"The Jewish Virtual LibraryAICE. February 2016. Archived from the original on 5 March 2018. Retrieved 4 March 2018Israel is home to the largest percentage of vegans per capita in the world. Approximately 5 percent of Israelis (approximately 300,000) are vegans according to a 2015 survey by Globes and Israel's Channel 2 News, compared to 2 percent of U.S. and U.K. citizens and only 1 percent of Germans. Hence, it’s not surprising that more than 400 certified vegan restaurants can be found in Tel Aviv alone.
  134. ^ Shpigel, Noa (13 September 2015). "Veganism on the Rise Among Israeli Arabs"HaaretzArchived from the original on 5 March 2018. Retrieved 4 March 2018.
  135. ^ Kamin, Debra (December 2015). "Big in Israel: Vegan Soldiers"The AtlanticArchived from the original on 4 March 2018. Retrieved 4 March2018The IDF is also issuing leather-free combat boots and wool-free berets to soldiers who register as vegan, so they can march into battle knowing that no living creature has been harmed in their provisioning. (What happens duringbattle is, of course, harder to control.)

    Cheslow, Daniella (10 December 2015). "As More Israelis Go Vegan, Their Military Adjusts Its Menu". The Salt. NPR. Archived from the original on 4 March 2018. Retrieved 4 March 2018The Israeli military, it turns out, was surprisingly eager to help. A military spokesman tells The Salt that vegans serve in all capacities, including as combat soldiers. Vegan soldiers wear wool-free berets and leather-free boots, and they get an additional stipend to supplement their food, the military says.

  136. ^ (in Italian) Vera Schiavazzi, "Addio carne e pesce: in aumento il popolo dei vegetariani e vegani in Italia"La Repubblica, 2 October 2015.
  137. ^ (in Dutch) NVV, "Vegan jaaroverzicht 2017", 2018.
  138. ^ "What Vegan Travelers Need to Know about Dining in Romania"Huffington Post. 14 February 2017. Retrieved 30 July 2018.
  139. ^ Molloy, Antonia (24 March 2014). "One in ten Swedes is vegetarian or vegan, according to study"The IndependentArchived from the original on 22 March 2018. Retrieved 22 March 2018In the poll conducted by Demoskop, six per cent of respondents said they were vegetarians, while four per cent said they were vegans. The highest prevalence was seen among 15–34 year-olds, with 17 per cent describing themselves as vegetarian or vegan.
  140. ^ "Veg-Umfrage 2017" (in German). swissveg. Retrieved 17 October 2019.
  141. ^ "Would you describe yourself as a vegetarian or vegan?", Survey of Public Attitudes and Behaviours toward the Environment, Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, 2007, table 210, question F7, 481: 81 respondents out of 3,618 said they were vegans.
  142. ^ "Find out how many vegans are in Great Britain". The Vegan Society. 17 May 2016. Archived from the original on 5 March 2018. Retrieved 4 March2018There are over half a million vegans in Britain—at least 1.05% of the 15 and over population*—new research commissioned by The Vegan Society in partnership with Vegan Life magazine, has found. At least 542,000 people in Britain are now following a vegan diet and never consume any animal products including meat, fish, milk, cheese, eggs and honey. This is a whopping increase since the last estimate of 150,000 ten years ago, making veganism one of Britain's fastest growing lifestyle movements. [...] *There are 51 million people in England, Scotland and Wales aged 15 and over.
  143. ^ Petter, Olivia (3 April 2018). "Number of vegans in UK soars to 3.5 million, survey finds". Indy/Eats. The IndependentArchived from the original on 3 April 2018. Retrieved 3 April 2018[A]ccording to a new survey by comparethemarket.com, there has been a significant spike in the number of people going vegan in the UK since 2016, with more than 3.5 million Brits now identifying as such. The research means that seven per cent of Great Britain's population are now shunning animal products altogether for life less meaty—and cheesy. [...] Supported by Gresham College professor Carolyn Roberts, the research suggests that environmental concerns are largely responsible for edging people towards a vegan diet, as Brits strive to reduce their carbon footprint.
  144. ^ "Veganism Skyrockets To 7% Of UK Population, Says New Survey". 2 April 2018.
  145. ^ "Statistics".
  146. ^ CNN, Amy Woodyatt, Rob Picheta and Robert Iddiols. "Vegans deserve same legal protection as religious people, UK judge rules"CNN. Retrieved 22 August 2020.
  147. ^ Newport, Frank (26 July 2012). "In U.S., 5% Consider Themselves Vegetarians"GallupArchived from the original on 5 March 2018. Retrieved 4 March 2018Vegetarianism in the U.S. remains quite uncommon and a lifestyle that is neither growing nor waning in popularity. The 5% of the adult population who consider themselves to be vegetarians is no larger than it was in previous Gallup surveys conducted in 1999 and 2001. The incidence of veganism is even smaller, at a scant 2% of the adult population.
  148. ^ "Study of Current and Former Vegetarians and Vegans", Faunalytics, December 2014, 4; "How Many Former Vegetarians and Vegans Are There?", Faunalytics, 2 December 2014.
  149. ^ Neff, Michelle (27 June 2017). "6 Percent of Americans Now Identify as Vegan – Why This Is a Huge Deal for the Planet". One Green Planet. Archived from the original on 3 April 2018. Retrieved 3 April 2018.
    "Top Trends in Prepared Foods 2017: Exploring trends in meat, fish and seafood; pasta, noodles and rice; prepared meals; savory deli food; soup; and meat substitutes". Research and Markets. June 2017. Archived from the original on 3 April 2018. Retrieved 3 April 2018 – via Report Buyer. Consumers' diets are diverse, and while most claim not to follow a specific diet, there is a gradual shift occurring in response to health trends. Interestingly, 44% of consumers in Germany follow a low-meat diet, which is a significant increase from 2014 (26%). Similarly, 6% of US consumers now claim to be vegan, up from just 1% in 2014. closed access
  150. ^ Gary Steiner, Animals and the Limits of Postmodernism, New York: Columbia University Press, 2013, 127–128.
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    "FAQ: Are all Leaping Bunny companies vegan (i.e., manufactured without animal by-products)?". Leaping Bunny. 27 February 2014. Archived from the original on 15 March 2018. Retrieved 14 March 2018The Leaping Bunny list does not provide information about the composition of ingredients. Because ingredient information is available—and required by law—we know that conscientious consumers can read labels to discover whether products are vegan or not. For this reason, Leaping Bunny chooses to focus its resources on validating information that is not readily available to consumers, such as animal testing claims. Many Leaping Bunny companies are committed to manufacturing natural and vegan products; however, the Leaping Bunny Program can only certify the animal testing component of this process.
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  158. Jump up to:a b c "Medications". The Vegan Society. Archived from the original on 14 March 2018. Retrieved 13 March 2018Vegans avoid using animals 'as far as is practicable and possible'. This definition recognises that it is not always possible to make a choice that avoids the use of animals. Sometimes, you may have no alternative to taking prescribed medication.
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  197. ^ Berkeley Wellness (2 December 2014). "Fake Meat Gets Real"Berkeley WellnessBerkeley University of CaliforniaArchived from the original on 25 February 2018. Retrieved 25 February 2018Made from such ingredients as soy, beans, lentils, wheat gluten, rolled oats, brown rice, nuts, sunflower seeds, and vegetables (like mushrooms, onions, peas, peppers, and carrots), fake meats are also being embraced by some hard-core meat eaters. And you won’t find just faux burgers, sausages, hot dogs, and breakfast patties anymore. Now there is everything from chicken-less strips and beef-less tips to pulled 'pork' and 'fish' fillets, all ready to heat and eat. Faux prawns are not only vegetarian, but kosher to boot.
  198. Jump up to:a b c Reed Mangels, Virginia Messina, Mark Messina (2011). The Dietitian's Guide to Vegetarian Diets. Jones and Bartlett Learning. ISBN 9780763779764Soy protein products typically have a protein digestibility corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS) ... >0.9, which is similar to that of meat and milk protein. Consequently, consuming the recommended dietary allowance (RDA, 0.8 mg/kg body weight [bw]), for protein entirely in the form of soy will meet the biologic requirement for amino acids. ... Formal recognition of the high quality of soy protein came in the form of a ruling by the USDA [United States Department of Agriculture] allowing soy protein to replace 100 percent of meat protein in the Federal School Lunch Program.
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  203. ^ Monica ReinagelNutrition Diva's Secrets for a Healthy Diet, Macmillan 2011, 20–21.
  204. ^ Reed MangelsThe Everything Vegan Pregnancy Book, Adams Media, 2011, 174.
  205. ^ Merritt, Russell J.; Jenks, Belinda H. (May 2004). "Safety of Soy-Based Infant Formulas Containing Isoflavones: The Clinical Evidence"The Journal of Nutrition134 (5): 1220S–1224S. doi:10.1093/jn/134.5.1220SPMID 15113975.
  206. Jump up to:a b c Coscarelli, Chloe (2012). Chloe's Kitchen: 125 Easy, Delicious Recipes for Making the Food You Love the Vegan Way. Simon and Schuster. ISBN 978-1451636758.
  207. Jump up to:a b Stepkin, Kay (16 January 2013). "Vegan cheese replaces lingering brie craving: Vegan brie takes just minutes of actual work"Chicago TribuneArchived from the original on 3 March 2018. Retrieved 3 March 2018.
  208. ^ Buren, Alex Van (29 March 2018). "What Is Vegan Cheese Exactly—and Should You Be Eating It?". Health. Yahoo!Archived from the original on 3 April 2018. Retrieved 3 April 2018Those looking to emulate the creamy texture and saltiness of real cheese tend to find themselves reaching for cashews, both at restaurants and at home. [...] But several other nuts can be transformed into vegan 'cheese'—what Keenan calls 'nutcheese'—such as almonds and pine nuts, among others.
  209. ^ Moreau, Elise. "What in the World is Vegan Cheese, Anyway? Can it Actually Replace 'Real' Cheese?". Foodie Buzz. Organic Authority. Archived from the original on 3 April 2018. Retrieved 3 April 2018Depending on the brand and recipe that's used, vegan cheese can be made from soy protein (used in shiny, slick, rubbery varieties), solidified vegetable oil (like coconut, palm, or safflower) nutritional yeast, thickening agar flakes, nuts (including cashews, macadamias, and almonds), tapioca flour, natural enzymes, vegetable glycerin, assorted bacterial cultures, arrowroot, and even pea protein.
  210. ^ Zimberoff, Larissa (17 May 2019). "There's a multibillion-dollar race on to replace the egg. Good luck with that"Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 3 July2019.
  211. Jump up to:a b Thomson, Julie (12 June 2017). "8 Genius Egg Substitutes For Baking"HuffPost. Retrieved 2 July 2019.
  212. ^ Ryland, Ali (22 May 2015). "20 amazing things you can do with aquafaba"The Vegan SocietyArchived from the original on 5 March 2018. Retrieved 4 March 2018.
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    Vega-Gálvez, Antonio; Miranda, Margarita; Vergara, Judith; Uribe, Elsa; Puente, Luis; Martínez, Enrique A (December 2010). "Nutrition facts and functional potential of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa willd.), an ancient Andean grain: a review". Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture90 (15): 2541–2547. doi:10.1002/jsfa.4158PMID 20814881.
    Abugoch James, LE (2009). "Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.): composition, chemistry, nutritional, and functional properties". Advances in Food and Nutrition Research58: 1–31. doi:10.1016/S1043-4526(09)58001-1PMID 19878856.

    Fuhrman, Joel; Ferreri, Deana M. (July 2010). "Fueling the Vegetarian (Vegan) Athlete". Current Sports Medicine Reports9 (4): 233–241. doi:10.1249/JSR.0b013e3181e93a6fPMID 20622542.

  217. Jump up to:a b Long, Cynthia (22 February 2012). "Crediting Tofu and Soy Yogurt Products" (PDF)Food and Nutrition Service (Memorandum). Alexandria, VA: United States Department of Agriculture. Archived from the original(PDF) on 12 July 2017. Retrieved 13 March 2018The Nutrition Standards in the National School Lunch and School Breakfast Programs final rule was published on January 26, 2012. The final rule gives schools the option to offer commercially prepared tofu as a meat alternate in the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) and School Breakfast Program (SBP).
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  219. ^ Mangels, Messina and Messina 2011, 77.
  220. Jump up to:a b Watanabe, Fumio; Yabuta, Yukinori; Bito, Tomohiro; Teng, Fei (5 May 2014). "Vitamin B12-Containing Plant Food Sources for Vegetarians"Nutrients6 (5): 1861–1873. doi:10.3390/nu6051861PMC 4042564PMID 24803097.
    Watanabe, Fumio; Yabuta, Yukinori; Tanioka, Yuri; Bito, Tomohiro (2 July 2013). "Biologically Active Vitamin B12 Compounds in Foods for Preventing Deficiency among Vegetarians and Elderly Subjects". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry61 (28): 6769–6775. doi:10.1021/jf401545zPMID 23782218.

    Croft, Martin T.; Lawrence, Andrew D.; Raux-Deery, Evelyne; Warren, Martin J.; Smith, Alison G. (November 2005). "Algae acquire vitamin B12 through a symbiotic relationship with bacteria". Nature438 (7064): 90–93. Bibcode:2005Natur.438...90Cdoi:10.1038/nature04056PMID 16267554.

  221. Jump up to:a b Reed Mangels, Virginia Messina, and Mark Messina, "Vitamin B12(Cobalamin)", The Dietitian's Guide to Vegetarian Diets, Jones & Bartlett Learning, 2011, 181–192.
  222. ^ "Vitamin B12 – Fact Sheet for Health Professionals". Office of Dietary Supplements, US National Institutes of Health. 11 February 2016. Retrieved 24 February 2018.
  223. Jump up to:a b Briani C, Dalla Torre C, Citton V, Manara R, Pompanin S, Binotto G, et al. (2013). "Cobalamin deficiency: clinical picture and radiological findings"Nutrients (Review). 5 (11): 4521–39. doi:10.3390/nu5114521PMC 3847746PMID 24248213.
  224. ^ Debra Wasserman, Reed MangelsSimply Vegan, The Vegetarian Resource Group, 2006, 171; also at Reed Mangels, "Vitamin B12 in the Vegan Diet", The Vegetarian Resource Group, accessed 8 July 2015.
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  237. Jump up to:a b Lusas, Edmund W. (2007). "Animal and Vegetable Fats, Oils, and Waxes". Kent and Riegel's Handbook of Industrial Chemistry and Biotechnology. pp. 1549–1656. doi:10.1007/978-0-387-27843-8_34ISBN 978-0-387-27842-1.
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  248. Jump up to:a b "Vitamin D", Office of Dietary Supplements, National Institutes of Health; Mangels et al. 2011, 204–209Ross et al. (Institute of Medicine) 2011, 75–124.
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  250. ^ Wang, Ting; Bengtsson, Göran; Kärnefelt, Ingvar; Björn, Lars Olof (1 September 2001). "Provitamins and vitamins D2 and D3 in Cladina spp. over a latitudinal gradient: possible correlation with UV levels" (PDF)Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology62 (1–2): 118–122. doi:10.1016/S1011-1344(01)00160-9PMID 11693362Archived (PDF)from the original on 22 March 2018. Retrieved 22 March 2018.
  251. ^ Watson, Elaine (13 March 2012). "Veggie vitamin D3 maker explores novel production process to secure future supplies"NutraIngredients-USAWilliam Reed Business MediaArchived from the original on 22 March 2018. Retrieved 22 March 2018The D3 is currently wild harvested from lichen that grows on rocks, trees and other locations in North America, Asia and Scandinavia [...] It is collected in buckets and washed at source, and then put through a multi-step process of extraction (using ethanol), purification and concentration in the UK before it is added to a vegetable oil carrier (medium chain triglycerides). It is then shipped over to GHT in canisters to be made into finished products (sprays, softgels etc).
    Watson, Elaine (7 December 2012). "Lichen-based vegan vitamin D3 gains momentum as Nordic Naturals introduces new product"NutraIngredients-USA. William Reed Business Media. Archived from the original on 22 March 2018. Retrieved 22 March 2018.
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  259. ^ Davida Gypsy Breier, Reed MangelsVegan & Vegetarian FAQ, The Vegetarian Resource Group, 2001, 27.
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  262. ^ "Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Health", Office of Dietary Supplements, National Institutes of Health. The Adequate Intake for ALA is 1.1–1.6 g/day.
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